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388 : ' :r ■ •■'■'. 

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CALIFDRNIANA 



MAIN LIBRARY 




<v* 



iiipi iii in hi mil inn mi mi ii mi mill ii linn 111 

3 1223 90158 6561 



317 Sa52a" 



685558 



NOT TO BE TAKEN FROM THE LIBRARY 



/EMIE 




The OCCIDENTAL HOTEL is located on Montgomery Street 
— thp fashionable promenade of the City— and has a frontage of 275 feet, 
extending from Bush to Sutter Street, by a depth of 168% feet. The Hotel 
is four stories high, and is one of the most substantial buildings in Cali- 
fornia : the foundation walls are six to eight feet thick, of the best quality 
of cut stone, laid in cement and lime. The Hotel contains 

412 rooms: 

Several of (he Private Suites hare Bath Rooms and Closets within each Suite. 

THERE ARE ALSO BATH ROOMS ON EVERT FLOOR. 



The Hotel is furnished with the latest and most approved styles of Furniture. 

The tahle is always plentifully supplied with the choicest fruits, and all the delicacies 
which an abundant market can furnish. 

There is a splendid Billiard Room and Bar Room, a steam Laundry, Barber's Shop and 
all the other appointments necessary for a first class hotel, connected with this establish- 
ment. 

One of Otis Brothers' PASSKNGER ELEVATORS, of the latest 
improved style, has lately been placed in the Hotel, near the Office, for the- accommoda- 
tion of the Guests. 



u< 



MARSCHALL k MITTAUER'S 




w m 

Mason Sq Hamlin's 



AND 



KOHLEE, CHASE & CO. 

A GJBJVTS, 
633 and 635 CLAY ST. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

IMPORTERS OF 

FANCY GOODS AND TOYS, 

Musical Instruments, etc. 



If* I 



5lL 



to dCaliforma |Jtomrat 



AND 



1^*F! 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

F. MacCRELLISH & CO., PUBLISHERS '.'ALT A CALIFORNIA" NEWSPAPER, 

529 Califoenia Stbeet. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868 by F. MacOeellish <fc Co., in 
the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States, for the Northern District of 
California. 



*3/7 a, 

685558 



AT THE CALIFORNIA TTPK FOUNDET 



PREFACE. 



The title of the Alta California Almanac and Book of Facts, 
describes itself. It is designed not merely as an ordinary almanac, 
hut as a book of reference for all classes of readers desirous of obtain- 
ing information bearing on our coast. In the present issue many 
changes will be observable, while the tabular matter has been thor. 
oughly remodeled and corrected to date. The present number cer- 
tainly goes beyond its predecessors as a practical book of reference 
and we have the hope and belief that on this occasion it will not be 
deemed unworthy of a place in every counting-room. All statistics 
have been, as far as practicable, derived from official sources. The 
present number contains many special articles, a part of them on 
points never treated before. The Publishers offer the Almanac at the 
lowest price possible on this coast, and have every reason to know 
that by reducing its cost one-half from the old rate they have greatly 
extended its popularity. 

In the special articles contributed to this number, the editor has 
chosen rather new subjects — new developments — new possibilities, 
than simply a repetition of oft told tales. The subjects themselves 
may not, in all cases, be thoroughly comprehensive — many sugges- 
tions and crude ideas will be found. But the idea has been to present 
new features as far as possible. Much of the material of an almanac 
must by necessity be simply designed for occasional reference, and 
while it may involve a considerable amount of work, leaves little 
enough to show for the pains taken with it. 

Since our last issue a most important steamship line has been in- 
augurated. It is needless to say that we refer to New Zealand and 
Australian line. Our city, the depot of the coast — is evidently des 
tined more and more to become the great seaport of the Pacific. "All 



PREFACE. 

roads lead to Rome;" in San Francisco every steamship line, and 
every railroad on the coast finds, or will find its terminus. The fol- 
lowing pages will show how much we believe in the future of the 
route via our city, more especially for the Australian bound directly 
for England, or vice versa. A deep and mutual interest exist both 
here and in the Colonies in the success of this scheme. It has been 
the fashion to speak of the trans-continental line as having resulted in 
injury to San Francisco, by bringing it into direct competition with 
Eastern cities. We believe that San Francisco will remain, and in" 
creasingly become the true centre of the coast, and very much so by 
means of the existing railroad, and other trans-continental roxds yet 
to be completed. We have made special arrangements to forward a 
large edition of this almanac to Australia. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

American Specialties for Australia 113 

Births and Deaths in San Francisco 95 

Business Notices 114 

Climate of California 79 

Chronological Cycles and Eras 8 

Calendar for 1871 10 

California State Officers 27 

Congressional Districts 31 

Chronological Eras SS 

Census of Towns of California .' 10.") 

California Land and Employment Exchange 10G 

Census Returns of San Francisco for 1870 Ill 

Domestic Postage 72 

Distances to Points Inland 73 

Distances between Pacific Ports 74 

Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institute 109 

Eclipses in 1870 8 

Ea.uinoxes and Solstices 8 

Federal Officers in San Francisco 33 

Free and Accepted Masons 70 

Foreign Consular Service in San Francisco 75 

First Discovery of Gold in California 76 

Future Industrial Developments in California 96 

Hebrew Calendar 9 

Industrial School 33 

Independent Order of Odd-Feliows 69 

Judicial Districts 28 

Kind of Immigrants for California 81 

Location of City Post-Offico Boxes 53 

Lode and Placer Claims 60 

LawRelating to Placer Claims 54 

Movable Festivals in 1871 S 

Money Orders 73 

Manufactories of San Francisco 88 

Mineral Resources of Southern California 91 

Mercantile Library Association of San Francisco 1 3 

Merchants' Exchange Association of San Francisco 19 

Mechanics' Institute of San Francisco U0 

NewYorkCity 65 

New Postal Convention between the United States and New Zealand 108 

New Vine Disease in France 110 

Officers of the United States Government 22 

Our Route to Australia 66 

Oregon and its Resources 81 

Pacific Railroad 99 

Public Schools of San Francisco 95 



Supreme Court of the United States 22 

Senators and Representatives in 41st Congress, 3rd Session 22 

State Board of Education 27 

State Board of Health , 28 

State Judiciary 28 

Senators and Assemblymen of the California Legislature 2!) 

San Francisco Municipal Government 31 

San Francisco Board of Health 32 

San Francisco Courts 32 

San Francisco Fire Commissioners, etc 32 

Sunken Rock in Rosario Straits 75 

Statistics of Business, etc., of San Francisco 87 

San Francisco Yacht Club Ill 

Table of Stamp Duties 41 

Table of Duties on Imported Goods 45 

Table of Internal Revenue Taxes 51 

Trade of Australia and Polynesia G8 

Tide Land Reclamation 105 

Time Table of the World 112 

United States District Courts 28 

University of California 34 

United States Postage— Tariff for Foreign Countries 36 

United States Internal Revenue Laws on Distillation. 62 

United States Internal Revenue Statistics 65 

"Wine Business 112 



THE ANATOMY OF MAN'S BODY, 



AS GOVEENED BY 



THE TWELVE CONSTELLATIONS, 

ACCORDING TO ANCIENT ASTROLOGY. 



THE TWELVE SIGNS OP THE ZODIAC. 



SPRING SIGNS. 

<p Aries, or Rain. 
\$ Taurus, or Bull. 
TJ Gemini, or Twins, 



SUMMER SIGNS. 

4. qz Cancer, or Crab. 

5. Si Leo, or Lion. 

6. ng Virgo, or Virgin. 



Head and Face <y> 



Arms. 

n 



Heart. 
SI 



Eeins. 



Thighs. 
Legs. 




Neck. 



Breast. 
25 



Bowels. 



Secrets. 



•V3 



l<eet x 



AUTUMN SIGNS. 

7. =£i Libra, or Balance. 

8. vti Scvrpio, or Scorpion. 

9. I Sagittarius, or Archer. 



WINTER SIGNS. 

10. VJ Capricornus, or Goat. 

11. ZX Aquarius, or Waterman. 

12. X Pieces, or Fishes. 



The first sis are called Northern Signs, and the other six Southern 
Signs. 



Almanac calculations by WM. Schmolz, San Francisco— given in Mean Time. 



Eclipses in 1871. 

In the year 1871 there will be four eclipses ; two of the Sun and 
two of the Moon. 

First — A partial eclipse of the Moon, January 6, at lh. 13m., even- 
ing, San Francisco time. Therefore invisible in the Pacific States. 

Second. — An annular eclipse of the Sun, June 17, at 6h. 19m. in 
the evening. Invisible in the United States. 

Third. — A partial eclipse of the Moon, July 2, partly visible at 
San Francisco. The Moon will set as the Sun rises, about 25 minutes 
after the eclipse begins. 

Fourth. — A total eclipse of the Sun, December 11, at 7h. 52m. in 
the evening. Invisible in the United States. This eclipse and that of 
June will be visible throughout Australia, 

MovaTble Festivals in Certain Churches in 1871. 



Septuagesima Sundny Feb. 5 

Shrove Sundav Feb. 19 

Ash Wednesday Feb. 22 

Mid-Lent Sunday March 19 

Palm Sunday April 

Good Friday April 

Easter Sunday Aprils 



Low Sunday April 10 

Rogation Sunday May 14 

Ascension Day May 18 

Whit Sunday, Pentecost. .May 28 

2 Trinity Sunday. June 4 

7 I Corpus Christ! June 8 

9 | Advent Sunday Dec. 3 



EMBER DAYS.— March 1, 



i, 4 ; May 31 ; June 2, 3 : 
December 20, 22, 23. 



September 20, 



Equinoxes and Solstices. 



Vernal Equinox. „ March 21 

Solstice June 21 



Autumnal Equinox Sept. 23 

Winter Solstice Dec. 22 



Chronological Cycles and Eras. 



Dominical Letter A 

Golden Number 10 

Epact 9 



Solar Cycle 4 

Roman Indiction 14 

Julian Period 6584 



Venus will be our Evening Star until the 26th day of September ; 
then Morning Star until the end of the year. 



J 

Hebrew Calendar, 5631-32. 

COMMENCEMENT OE THE YEAB { || |JP*; ^ Jg™; 


NEW MOONS. 


FASTS AND FEASTS. 


DATES. 


| 5631 

Tebet 10 

Shebot 1 

Adar 1 

13 

14 

Nisan 1 

15 

21 

lyar 1 

18 

Sivan 1 

6 

Thammooz. 1 

17 

Ab 1 

9 

Ellol 1 

5632 
Tishree 1 
3 
10 

15 
22 

Marshesh 1 

Kislive 1 

" 25 

Tebehet 1 

10 


Fast, Siege of Jerusalem 


1870 

January 3 

January 23 

February 2£ 

March. .' 6 




Fast of Esther 






" 23 




April 6 

" 12 

" 22 








May 9 

<•' 21 

" 26 

June 20 

July 6 

" 19 

" 27 

August 18 | 

September 16 

18 

25 

30 

October 7 

" 16 

November 14 

December 8 

13 

22 


j- Feast of Weeks. Shebouth* j 


Fast 










Fast of Gyedaliah 

Fast Day of Atonement, 

(Tom Kippur). 


End of Feast of Tabernacles, 

(Shemene). 




Feast of Dedication. (Hanukah). 






*Held on Sunday in consequence of its being on the Sabbath, when no fast except 
Kippur can be celebrated. 


Great Forbearance. — " 0, Ma," said a little creature, who had 
been allowed to stay at communion for the first time, " what do you 
think ? A man went round with a plateful of money, and offered it to 
everybody in our pew, but I did'nt take any. 

Voting at the Equator. — A little girl of ten. whose knowledge 
of politics is somewhat imperfect, on hearing her father speak of 
going to the poll to vote, very innocently inquired if the people of the 
tropics voted at the equator. 



1st MontlL 



JANUARY, 187L 



31 Bays. 





B. 

6 

13 


MOON'S PHASES. 

H. M. 


JD. 

...20 


H. 
4 

5 


M. 


Last Quarter 


10 45 Eve. 1 Fir t Quarter... 


...•:8 


4 Morn. 



D*Y 

Month 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Monday 

Tuesday .... 
Wednesday. 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Monday 

Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday .... 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
£ttttfl*jj. 
Monday. . . . 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Monday. . . . 



Moon'a 
Place. 

T 


High Water. 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


7 58 


7 25 


4 43 


K 


8 35 


7 25 


4 44 




9 20 


7 25 


4 45 




10 10 


7 25 


4 46 


n 


10 53 


7 25 


4 47 




11 48 


7 25 


4 48 


25 


evening 


7 25 


4 49 




1 30 


7 24 


4 50 


SI 


2 20 


7 24 


4 51 




3 10 


7 24 


4 52 




3 54 


7 24 


4 53 


■ng 


4 48 


7 23 


4 54 




5 36 


7 23 


4 55 




6 24 


7 23 


4 56 


-ru 


7 16 


7 22 


4 57 




8 10 


7 22 


4 59 


"I 


9 06 


7 21 


5 00 




10 05 


7 21 


5 01 


t 


11 08 


7 21 


5 02 




morn'g 


7 20 


5 03 


Vi 


10 


7 19 


5 04 




1 08 


7 19 


5 05 


M*, 


2 06 


7 18 


5 06 




2 54 


7 17 


5 08 


¥ 


3 40 


7 17 


5 09 




4 24 


7 16 


5 10 


T 


5 08 


7 15 


5 11 




5 46 


7 14 


5 13 




6 32 


7 13 


5 14 


H 


7 12 


7 12 


5 15 




7 54 


7 12 


5 16 



2 26 

3 24 

4 21 

5 18 

6 15 
rises. 

5 45 

6 45 

7 48 

8 54 

9 57 
11 05 

morn'g 



12 


1 22 


2 32 


3 45 


3 54 


6 01 


sets. 


6 00 


7 08 


8 15 


9 19 


10 21 


11 18 


morn'g 


18 


1 15 


2 11 


3 10 



A Gardiner physician says that he never charges a Christian anything 
for medicine, but then they are so scarce that it only costs him twenty- 
five cents a year. 



2d Month, 



FEBRUARY, 1871. 



28 Days. 



Full Moon 5 

Last Quarter 12 



MOON'S PHASES. 
M. 

52 Morn. I New Moon 

50 Morn. | First Quarter. 



D. H. M. 

.19 5 39 Morn. 
..27 2 28 Morn. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

1^ 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 



Wednesday. . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

^uudat}. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday.. . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday.. . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

j$tt»6ag. 

Monday 

Tuesday 



Moon's 
Place. 


High Water. 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


M 


4 48 


7 11 


5 18 


n 


9 35 


7 10 


5 19 




10 28 


7 09 


5 20 


25 


11 21 


7 07 


5 21 




evening 


7 06 


5 22 


a 


1 04 


7 05 


5 23 




1 56 


7 04 


5 25 


vtJl 


2 44 


7 03 


5 26 




3 36 


7 02 


5 27 


Jl. 


4 24 


7 01 


5 28 




5 12 


7 00 


5 30 


"1 


6 04 


6 58 


5 31 




6 56 


6 57 


5 32 




7 58 


6 56 


5 34 


/ 


8 57 


6 55 


5 35 




9 52 


6 53 


5 36 


>5 


10 53 


6 52 


5 37 




11 49 


6 51 


5 39 


«* 


morn'g 


6 49 


5 40 




38 


6 48 


5 41 


x 


1 30 


6 46 


5 43 




2 15 


6 45 


5 44 




2 57 


6 44 


5 45 


f 


3 42 


6 43 


5 46 




4 25 


6 41 


5 48 


y 


5 08 


6 39 


5 49 




5 53 


6 38 


5 50 




6 40 


6 37 


5 51 



4 03 

4 59 

5 48 
37 

rises. 

6 48 

7 48 

8 58 

10 05 

11 12 
morn'g 

24 

1 32 

2 42 

3 48 

4 50 

5 42 

6 27 
sets. 

7 04 

8 06 

9 04 

10 03 

11 03 
11 58 

morn'g 

57 

1 53 



If all the humors of the census could be gathered into a volume, it 
would afford the liveliest sort of reading. We see it stated that in Indiana 
the enumerator discovered who was happy in the name of Jane Juliette 
Isalina Arminta Musadora Peeks. How solemn that name will look on 
a tombstone! In Ohio, a family was found where the first son was named 
Imprimis, the second Finis, and the three others Appendix, Addendum 
and Erratum ! 



3d Montli. 




MARCH, 1871. 


31 Days. 


Full Moon 

Last Quarter 


D. 

6 

13 


MOON'S PHASES, 
n. m. 

7 29 Eve. 1 New Moon 

2 10 Eve. 1 Fir-t Quarter.. 


p. ir. m. 
....20 " f.O Eve. 
....28 10 8J Eve. 





6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
18 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
2:J 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Wednesday . . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday.. . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

£un.Iny. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . 

Thursday 

Friday 



Place. 


High Water. 


■ mi B lot 


Sun Sots. 


n 


7 28 


6 36 


5 49 




8 18 


6 34 


5 50 


25 


9 10 


6 33 


5 51 




10 02 


6 32 


5 52 


SI 


10 54 


6 31 


5 53 




11 42 


6 29 


5 ■"■■ ! 




evening 


6 27 


5 55 


W 


1 26 


6 26 


r> 56 




2 14 


6 25 


5 57 




3 08 


6 23 


5 58 


^= 


3 58 


21 


5 59 


% 


4 56 


6 19 


(•» 00 




5 52 


6 18 


6 i)l 


I 


6 50 


6 17 


6 02 




7 49 


6 15 


(i 03 


W 


8 47 


6 13 


04 




9 42 


6 11 


6 05 


XXX 


10 34 


6 10 


6 06 




11 24 


6 08 


6 07 


X 


rnorn'g 


6 07 


6 08 




10 


6 05 


09 




53 


04 


6 10 


T 


1 36 


6 02 


6 11 




2 19 


6 01 


6 12 


« 


3 01 


00 


6 13 




3 46 


5 58 


6 13 




4 32 


5 56 


6 14 


n 


5 20 


5 55 


6 15 




6 10 


5 53 


6 16 




6 59 


5 51 


6 17 


25 


7 48 


5 50 


6 18 



2 47 

3 09 
I 28 
5 13 

5 53 
rises. 
('» 42 
7 53 
«.) 02 

10 12 

11 24 
morn'g 

16 



sets. 

6 54 

7 54 

8 48 

9 50 

10 48 

11 42 
morn'g 

38 

1 32 

2 20 

3 06 



A correspondent of a Western paper having described the Ohio as a 
sickly stream, the editor appended the remark, '-That's so ! It is confined 
to its bed." 






4th Month. 



APRIL, 1871. 



30 Bays. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



D. 

Full Moon 5 

Last Quarter 11 



M. 

13 Eve. 

41 Morn. 



New Moon 

First Quarter. 



H. M. 

10 53 Morn. 
3 37 Eve. 



Saturday . . . 

Monday 

Tuesday 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

&ttlUlRJJ. 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday, 
Thursday. . , 

Friday 

Saturday . . , 

Monday. . . , 
Tuesday.. . 
Wednesday 
Thursday . . 
Friday .... 
Saturday . . 

Monday. . . 
Tuesday . . . 
Wednesday 
Thursday. . 
Friday .... 
Saturday . . 

jSanflajj. 



Moon's 
Place. 


High Water. 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


SI 


8 42 


5 50 


6 18 


"K 


9 33 


5 48 


6 19 




10 24 


5 47 


6 20 


sCs 


11 12 


5 46 


6 21 




evening 


5 44 


6 22 


K 


9 56 


5 43 


6 23 




1 48 


5 42 


6 24 


t 


2 46 


5 40 


6 25 




3 44 


5 39 


6 26 


W 


4 43 


5 38 


6 27 




6 42 


5 36 


6 28 


Zw 


7 38 


5 35 


6 29 




8 31 


5 33 


6 30 


X 


9 18 


5 32 


6 31 




10 00 


5 30 


6 32 




10 52 


5 28 


6 33 


T 


11 33 


5 27 


6 34 




morn'g 


5 26 


6 35 


« 


14 


5 24 


6 36 




58 


5 23 


6 37 




1 42 


5 22 


6 38 


n 


2 27 


5 21 


6 38 




3 14 


5 20 


6 39 


93 


4 02 


5 18 


6 40 




4 52 


5 16 


6 41 




5 28 


5 15 


6 42 


9, 


5 42 


5 14 


6 43 




6 32 


5 13 


6 44 




7 22 


5 12 


6 44 


m 


8 12 


5 10 


6 45 



"It's a desprit thing," said old Joe Smykers, " desprit thing; that air 
young couple who've been billin'and cooin' and makin' eyes at one 
another for n month, have now pone to the minister ana gota permit to 
see if they kin keep it up for a lifetime. 



5tfe Month. 



MAY, 1871. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



Full Moon 4 

Last Quarter 11 



50 Eve. 
13 Morn. 



New Moon 19 

Fuvt Quarter 27 



2 35 Morn. 
4 52 Morn. 



Monday. . . . 
Tuesday. . . . 
Wednesday . 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
$imtog. 

Monday 

Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
£uiulutj. 
Monday .... 
Tuesday 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
JhnuUiy. 
Monday. . . . 
Tuesday 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Monday. . . . 

Tuesda3 r 

Wednesday. 



Moon's 
Place. 


High Water. 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


9 02 


5 08 


6 46 




9 48 


5 07 


6 47 




10 42 


5 06 


6 48 


-A- 


11 32 


5 05 


6 49 




evening 


5 04 


6 50 


»l 


1 28 


5 03 


6 51 




2 30 


5 02 


6 52 


t 


3 32 


5 01 


6 53 




4 36 


5 00 


6 54 


y\ 


5 34 


4 59 


6 55 




6 28 


4 58 


6 56 


™, 


7 19 


4 57 


6 57 




8 06 


4 56 


6 58 


X 


8 48 


4 55 


6 59 




9 34 


4 55 


7 00 




10 14 


4 54 


7 01 


T 


10 58 


4 53 


7 02 




11 38 


4 52 


7 03 


H 


morn'g 


4 51 


7 03 




24 


4 51 


7 04 




1 08 


4 50 


7 05 


n 


1 58 


4 49 


7 05 




2 48 


4 49 


7 06 


25 


3 37 


4 48 


7 06 




4 28 


4 47 


7 07 


SI, 


5 18 


4 46 


7 08 




6 04 


4 46 


7 08 




6 53 


4 45 


7 09 


*x 


7 41 


4 45 


7 09 




8 30 


4 44 


7 10 




9 18 


4 44 


7 10 



3 27 

3 57 

4 30 
rises. 

8 02 

9 17 

10 28 

11 31 
morn'g 

25 



4 32 
sets. 

8 24 

9 18 
10 11 

10 58 

11 40 
morn'g 

22 

54 

1 28 

1 40 

2 24 
2 56 



The modern song of love— Cupid-ditty. 

A Hartford burglar, in conducting his own defence before the court, dis- 
" t ~' , . the district attorney by calling him " my learned brother." 



6th Month. 



JUNE, 1871. 



30 Days. 



Full Moon 

Last Quarter. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

M. 

17 Eve. 

27 Eve. 



First Quarter 25 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
•1-1 
23 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 
80 



Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
Jhuulay. 

Monday 

Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Jittitdatj. 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday. .. 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday. 

Monday .... 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday . 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday. 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday .... 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 
Friday 



Moon's 
Place. 


High Water. 


San Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


^ 


10 12 


4 44 


7 11 


"I 


11 08 


4 44 


7 11 




evening 


4 43 


7 12 


t 


1 12 


4 43 


7 13 




2 18 


4 43 


7 13 


n 


3 18 


4 43 


7 14 




4 20 


4 43 


7 15 


~» 


•5 15 


4 42 


7 16 




6 02 


4 42 


7 16 


X 


6 48 


4 42 


7 17 




7 32 


4 42 


7 17 




8 14 


4 42 


7 17 


r 


8 56 


4 42 


7 18 




9 37 


4 42 


7 18 


« 


10 22 


4 42 


7 18 




11 18 


4 42 


7 19 




11 56 


4 42 


7 19 


n 


morn'g 


4 43 


7 19 




4 42 


4 43 


7 20 




1 34 


4 43 


7 20 


55 


2 24 


4 43 


7 20 




3 14 


4 43 


7 20 


9, 


4 02 


4 44 


7 20 




4 48 


4 44 


7 20 


WJJ 


5 36 


4 44 


7 21 




6 24 


4 44 


7 21 




7 08 


4 45 


7 21 


-^ 


7 56 


4 45 


7 21 




8 52 


4 45 


7 21 


"l 


9 47 


4 46 


7 21 



During peace a regiment is quartered ; during war-time it is occasion- 
ally cut to pieces. 

When is soup likely to run out of the sauce-pan ? When there is a leek 
in it. 



7th Month. 



JULY, 1871. 



31 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



Full Moon 2 5 

Last Quarter 9 4 

New Moon 17 9 



26 Morn. 
5!) Morn. 
17 Morn. 



Pi'r t Quarter.. 
Full Moon 



D. H. M. 

.24 9 41 E%'0. 
..31 1 7 Evo. 



D.Y 

o 

Mow ■ II 



1 

2 

o 
O 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
18 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Saturday . . . 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday. . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 

jSaaflajj. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday. . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 
JhuullU). 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 
£ttttdag. 
Monday 



10 48 

11 52 

evening 

1 58 

2 56 

3 54 
* 4 42 

5 28 
12 

6 54 

7 37 

8 20 

9 00 
9 52 

10 40 

11 30 
morn'ft 

22 

1 12 

1 52 

2 48 

3 36 

4 22 

5 08 

5 54 

6 44 

7 38 

8 36 

9 36 

10 40 

11 42 



4 40 

4 47 



4 50 



4 59 



It lias been proved that the brain of the canary bird excels, in propor- 
tion to the bulk of their bodies, that of man. 



8th Montli. 



AUGUST, 1871. 



31 Days. 



Last Quarter 7 

New Moon 15 



MOON'S PHASES. 
m. 

13 Eve. 

51 Eve. 



I First Quarter 23 3 25 Morn 

I Full Moon 29 10 11 Eve. 



Month 



1 
O 

3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday .... 
$htwlay. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday. . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . , 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday. . . . 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday .... 

Friday 

Saturday .... 
Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . . 
Thursday 



— 








Moon's 
Place. 


High Water. 


Sim Rises. 


Sim Sets. 


V3 


eve. 20 


5 07 


7 04 


Z£! 


1 36 


5 08 


7 03 




2 28 


5 09 


7 02 


X 


3 18 


5 10 


7 01 




4 06 


5 11 


7 00 




4 46 


5 12 


6 59 


V 


5 32 


5 13 


6 58 




6 12 


5 14 


6 57 


H 


6 58 


5 15 


6 56 




7 42 


5 16 


6 55 




8 34 


5 17 


6 54 


n 


9 24 


5 17 


6 53 




10 12 


5 18 


6 52 


25 


11 06 


5 19 


6 51 




11 56 


5 19 


6 50 


si 


morn'g 


5 20 


6 49 




42 


5 21 


6 48 




1 32 


5 22 


6 47 


m 


2 17 


5 23 


6 46 




3 06 


5 24 


6 45 




3 52 


5 25 


6 43 


:£= 


4 42 


5 26 


6 42 


% 


5 34 


5 27 


6 41 




6 25 


5 28 


6 40 


t 


7 28 


5 30 


6 39 




8 28 


5 31 


6 37 




9 28 


5 32 


6 36 


VI 


11 36 


5 33 


6 35 




evening 


5 33 


6 33 




18 


5 34 


6 32 


X 


1 08 


5 35 


6 30 



It is thought that diamonds exist in the vicinity of Pine Bluff, Ark- 
ansas. As a proof of it, a local paper of that place says several "suspicious- 
looking " stones have been found. 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER, 1871. 



30 Days. 



MOON'S PHASES. 



Last Quarter 6 

New Moon 14 



Eve. 
59 Morn. 



First Quarter 21 9 2 Morr. 

Full Moon 28 9 31 Morn. 



1 

2 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 

10 
11 

12 
13 
14 

15 
10 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Friday 

Saturday . . . 
Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Ihuuhy. 
Monday. . . . 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
furulay. 
Monday. . . . 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday.. . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

^umliiy. 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 



Mnnn-8 
riaco. 


High Water. 


Run Rleoi. 


Sun Setn. 


X 


1 54 


5 35 


6 28 




2 38 


5 36 


6 27 


T 


3 26 


5 37 


6 25 




4 10 


5 37 


6 24 


« 


4 54 


5 38 


6 22 




5 38 


5 39 


6 21 




27 


5 40 


6 19 


n 


7 16 


5 41 


6 18 




8 06 


5 42 


6 16 


23 


8 54 


5 43 


6 14 




9 48 


5 43 


6 12 


SI 


10 30 


5 44 


6 10 




11 26 


5 45 


08 




raorn'g 


5 46 


6 06 


^ 


14 


5 47 


6 04 




58 


5 48 


6 02 




1 48 


5 49 


6 00 


-ru 


2 36 


5 50 


5 59 




3 40 


5 51 


5 58 


"I 


4 24 


5 52 


5 56 




5 18 


5 53 


5 55 


/ 


6 20 


5 54 


5 53 




7 IS 


5 55 


5 52 


V? 


8 21 


5 56 


5 51 




9 17 


5 57 


5 49 


«* 


10 10 


5 58 


5 47 




10 57 


5 59 


5 45 


X 


11 48 


5 59 


5 44 




eve. 36 


5 59 


5 43 


| T 


1 18 


6 00 


5 41 



Tho Virginia Enterprise summarizes a new pastime in Nevada: "Our 
friend Perkins went out yesterday to practice Throwing a boomerang sent 
him by his brother in Australia. The physicians tbink his nose can be 
patched and straightened up, but say his eyes are entirely gone." 



lOth Month. 



OCTOBER, 1871. 



31 Days. 



Last Quarter. „ 6 

New Moon 13 



MOON'S PHASES. 
M. 

22 Morn. I First Quarter.. 
8 Eve. I Full Moon 



3 1 1 Eve. 
4 Morn. 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

6 
7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
1-1 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Sunday. 
Monday. . . . 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday . 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Monday. . . . 
Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday.. . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday.. . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

^mulay, 

Monday 

Tuesday.. . . 



Moon's 
Place. 


nigh Water. 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


V 


2 02 


6 00 


5 40 


8 


2 48 


6 01 


5 38 




3 32 


6 02 


5 36 




4 18 


6 03 


5 34 


n 


5 08 


6 04 


5 32 




5 58 


6 05 


5 31 




G 48 


6 06 


5 29 


25 


7 38 


6 07 


5 28 


Si 


8 27 


6 08 


5 26 




9 15 


6 09 


5 25 




10 02 


6 10 


5 24 


*K 


10 48 


6 11 


5 22 




11 36 


6 12 


5 21 


_«. 


morn'g 


6 13 


5 20 




30 


6 14 


5 19 


"1 


1 18 


6 15 


5 18 




2 12 


6 16 


5 16 


/ 


3 14 


6 17 


5 14 




4 12 


6 18 


5 13 


y3 


5 15 


6 19 


5 12 




6 15 


6 20 


5 10 


«*. 


7 12 


6 21 


5 09 




8 06 


6 22 


5 08 


X 


8 54 


6 23 


5 05 




9 42 


6 24 


5 04 




10 30 


6 25 


5 02 


T 


11 14 


6 26 


5 01 




11 54 


6 27 


5 01 


8 


eve. 40 


6 28 


5 00 




1 24 


6 29 


4 59 




2 14 


6 30 


4 58 



A medical man, advertising bis "practice" for sale, winds up, after 
stating all i's advantages, with Iho following additional recommend- 
ation : " N. B.— Not five miles distant from a large railway-station." 



11th Month. 



NOVEMBER, 1871. 



30 Bays. 



Last Quarter.. 
New Moon 



MOON'S PHASES. 



45 Morn. I First Quarter.. 
59 Morn. | Full Moon 



37 Morn. 
5 43 Eve. 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Wednesday. . 
Thursday. . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 

jlundatj. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . 
Thursday. . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 

Jhuulay. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . . 
Thursday.. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . . 

Monday 

Tuesday .... 
Wednesday. 
Thursday.. . 



Moon's 
Place. 

H 


High Water. 


sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


3 04 


6 30 


4 58 


n 


3 48 


6 32 


4 56 




4 38 


6 33 


4 55 


25 


5 30 


6 34 


4 54 




6 18 


6 35 


4 53 


si 


7 06 


6 36 


4 52 




7 54 


6 37 


4 51 




8 40 


6 38 


4 50 


^ 


9 27 


6 39 


4 49 




10 16 


6 40 


4 48 




11 06 


6 41 


4 47 


-a. 


11 58 


6 42 


4 46 


*l 


morn'g 


6 44 


4 45 




54 


6 45 


4 44 


/ 


1 56 


6 46 


4 43 




3 04 


6 47 


4 42 


V5 


4 06 


6 48 


4 41 




5 08 


6 49 


4 41 


A«. 


6 07 


6 50 


4 40 




6 54 


6 51 


4 40 


X 


7 46 


6 52 


4 40 




8 28 


6 53 


4 40 




9 12 


6 54 


4 39 


¥ 


9 54 


6 55 


4 39 




10 38 


6 56 


4 39 


8 


11 22 


6 57 


4 38 




evening 


6 58 


4 38 




54 


6 59 


4 38 


n 


1 42 


7 00 


4 37 




2 36 


7 01 


4 37 



An intelligent youth, recently engaged in a commercial office, made out 
a shipping bill for " fourty " barrels of flour. His employer called his at- 
tention to the error in the spelling of forty. "Sure enough," replied the 
promising clerk, " I left out the gh." 



12th Month. 


DECEMBER, 1871. 




31 Days. 


Last Quarter 


MOON'S PHASES. 

D. H. M. 

...4 10 35 Eve. 1 Fir^t Quarter 

...11 7 52 Eve. | Full Moon 


D. 

.18 

..20 


H. M. 

31 Eve. 

1 24 Eve. 




#- 





o 

Mo.NTII 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . . 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. . . . 

Thursday 

Friday. 

Saturday 

Sunday. 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday. 



Place. 


Hiph Water. 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


25 


3 24 


7 02 


4 37 




4 15 


7 03 


4 37 


SI 


4 58 


7 04 


4 37 




5 47 


7 05 


4 37 




6 32 


7 06 


4 36 


M 


7 17 


7 07 


4 36 




8 02 


7 08 


4 36 




8 52 


7 09 


4 36 


-fe 


9 42 


7 10 


4 36 




10 38 


7 10 


4 37 


"I 


11 38 


7 11 


4 37 




morn'g 


7 12 


4 37 


/ 


42 


7 12 


4 37 




1 48 


7 13 


4 38 


v? 


2 46 


7 13 


4 38 




3 53 


7 14 


4 38 




4 48 


7 15 


4 39 


X 


5 39 


7 16 


4 39 




6 26 


7 17 


4 39 




7 10 


7 18 


4 40 


T 


7 54 


7 18 


4 40 




8 37 


7 18 


4 41 


a 


9 20 


7 19 


4 41 




10 04 


7 19 


4 42 




10 52 


7 19 


4 43 


n 


11 42 


7 19 


4 44 




eve. 29 


7 20 


4 44 




1 18 


7 20 


4 45 


03 


2 10 


7 20 


4 45 


a 


2 57 


7 20 


4 46 




3 42 


7 21 


4 47 



Puuch has the following: A capital answer. Self-made man examin- 
ing a school, of which he is manager— ;< Now, boy, what's the capital of 
'Olland?'" Boy— "An H, sir." 



22 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

(Comuiled from the Congressional Directory.) 

President of the United States U. 8. Grant, of "Wisconsin. 

Vice President .« Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana. 

THE CABINET. 

Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, of New York. 

Secretary of the Treasury George S. Boutwell, of Massachusetts. 

Secretary of War William "W. Belknap, of Iowa. 

Secretary of tlio Navy George M. Robeson, of New Jersey. 

Posrmastcr-Genera' J. A. J. Cresswell, of Maryland. 

Secretary of ino Interior J. D. Cox, of Ohio. 

Attorney-General Amos T. Akerman. 

SUPREME COURT OP THE UNITED STATES. 

Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio. 

CIRCUITS. 

First— Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, Mr. 
Justice Clifford, of Portland, Maine. Second— New York, Vermont, and 
Connecticut, Mr. Justice Nelson, of Cooperstown, New York. Third- 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, Mr. Justice Strong, of Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania. Fourth — Maryland, "West Virginia, Virginia, 
North Caroliua.and South Carolina, Mv- Chief Justice Chase, of Ohio. 
Fifth— Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, Mr. 
Justice Bradley, of Columbus, Ohio. Sixth— Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, 
and Tennessee, Mr. Justice Swayne, *of Columbus, Ohio. Seventh— In- 
diana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, Mr. Justice Davis, of Bloomington, Illi- 
nois. Eighth— Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, and Ne- 
braska, Mr. Justice Milber, of Keokuk, Iowa. Ninth— C difornia, Or- 
egon, and Nevada, Mr. Justice Field, of San Francisco, California. 

The Court holds one general terra, annually.at Washington, D. C, com- 
mencing on the first Monday in December. 

Senators and Representatives in the Forty-First Congress, 
3rd Session? 

SENATORS. 
R, after the name, etc., signifies Republican, D Democrat, U E Union Republican. 

Alabama. 

Term Expires. 

Willard Warner, of Montgomery R March 3, 1871 

ueorge E. Spencer, of Decatur R March 8, 1873 

Arlcansas. 

Alex. McDonald, of Little Rock R March 3, 1871 

Benj. F. Rice, of Little Rock R March 3, 1873 

California 

Cornelius Cole, of San Francisco D March 3. 3873 

Eugene Casseriy, of San Francisco D March 3, .1875 

Connecticut. 

Orris S. Ferry, of Norwalk R March 3, 1873 

Wm. A. Buckingham, of Norwich R March 3, 1875 

Delaware. 

Wm Saulsbury, of Georgetown D March 3, 1871 

Thos. Francis Bayard, of Wilminefon D March 3, 1875 

Florida. 

Thos W. Osborn.of Pensacola R March 3, 1873 

Ab jab Gilbert, of St. Augustine R March 3, 1875 

Georgia. — [Vacant.] 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 23 

Illinois. 

Lyraan Trumbull, of Chicago R March 3, 3873 

Richard Yates, of Jacksonville U. R March 3, 1871 

Indiana. 

Oliver P. Morton, of Indianapolis U R March 3, 1873 

Daniel D Pratt, of Logansport K March :j, 1875 

Iowa 

James B Howell, of Keokok R March 3, 1871 

James Harlan, of Mount Pleasant : R March 3, 1&73 

Kunsas. 

Samuel C. Pomeroy, of Atchison R March 3, 1873 

Edmond G. Ross, of Lawrence R March;;, 1871 

Kentucky. 

Garret Davis, of Paris R March 3, 1S73 

Thos. C. McCreery.ofOwensboio' D March 3, 1871 

Louisiana. 

JohnS. Harris, of Vidalia R March 4, 1871 

Wm. Pitt Kellogg, of New Orleans i< March 4, 1873 

Maine 

Lot M. Morrill of Augusta R March 3,1871 

Hannibal Hamlin, of Bangor K March 3, 1875 

Maryland. 

George Vickers, of Chestertown D March 3. 1873 

Wm. T. Hamilton, of Hagerstown D March 3, 1875 

Massachusetts. 

Charles Sumner, of Boston R March 3, 1875 

Henry Wilson, of Natiek R March 3, 1871 

Michigan. 

Zachariah Chandler, of Detroit R March 3, 1875 

Jacob M. Howard, of Detroit R Marcu a, 1671 

Minnesota. 

Alexander Ramsey, of St. Paul R March 3, 1875 

Daniel H. Norton, oi Winona D... March 3, 1S71 

Mississippi. 

Hiram R. Revels, of Natchez R March 3, 1871 

Albert Ames, of Natch .-z , R March o, 1875 

Missouri. 

Chas. D.Drake, of St. Louis R March 3, 1S73 

Carl Schurz, of St. Louis R March 3, 1875 

Nebraska. 

John M. Thayer, of Omaha R March 3, 1871 

Thos. W. Tipton, of Brownville R March 3, 1875 

Nevada. 

James W. Nye, of Carson City R March 3, 1873 

Wm. M. Stewart, of Virginia Ciiy R March 3, 1875 

Neiv Hampshire. 

Aaron H. Cragin, of Lebanon R March 3, IS77 

James W. Patterson, of Hanover R March 3, 1873 

New Jersey. 

Alex. G. Cattel, of Camden R March 3, 1871 

John P. Stockton, of Trenton R March 3, Ls75 

New York. 

Roscoe Conkling, of TJtica U. R March 3, 1873 

Rueben E. Fenton, of Jamestown R March 3, 1875 

North Carolina. 

Joseph C. Abbott, of Wilmington R March 3, 1871 

John Pool, of Elizabeth City R March 3, 18:3 

Ohio. 

John Sherman, of Mansfield R March 3, 1873 

Allen G. Thurman, of Columbus D March 3, 1875 

Oregon. 

George IT. Williams, of Portland U. R March 3,1871 

Henry W. Corbett, of Portland U. R March 3, 1873 



24 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Pennsylvania. 

Simon Cameron, of Harrisburg U. R March 3, 1873 

John Scott, of Huntingdon R March 4, 1875 

Rhode Island. 

Henry B Anthony, of Providence IT. R March 3, 1877 

Wm. Sprague, of Providence D March 3, 1875 

Soutfi Caroline. 

Thos. J. Robertson, of Columbia R March 3, 1871 

Frederick A. Sawyer, of Charleston R March 3, 1873 

Tennessee. 

Joseph S. Fowler, of Nashville U. R March 3, 1871 

Wrn. G. Brownlow R March 3, 1875 

Texas. 

Morgan C. Hamilton, of Austin R March 3, 1877 

J. W. Flaunagan, of Waiting's Ferry R March 3, 1875 

Vermont. 

Geo. F. Edmunfls, of Burlington R March 3, 1875 

Justin S. Morrill, of Strafford U. R March 3, 1873 

Virginia. 

J. W. Johnston, of Abington R March 3, 1871 

J. F. Lewis, of Port Republic R March 3, 1875 

West Virginia. 

WaitmanT. Willey, of Morgantown R March 3, 1871 

Arthur Ingham Boreman, of Parkersburg R March 3, 1875 

Wisconsin. 

Timothy O. Howe, ofGreen Bay U. R March 3, 1873 

Matthew H. Carpenter, of Milwaukee, R March 3, 1875 

REPRESENTATIVES. 

R.., after the name, etc., signifies Republican; D., Democrat ; I., Independent; U., R. 

Union Republican; U., D., Union Democrat; R., It., Radical Republican, 

Alabama. 

A. E. Buck, of Mobile, R. C. Hays, of Eutaw, R. 

C. W. Buckley, of Montgomery, R. P. M. Dox, of Huutsville, U. D. 
R. H. Heflin, of Wedowee, R. W. C. Sherrod, of Courtland, I). 

Arkansas. 
L. II. Roots, of Duvall's Bluff, R. T. Boles, of Dardanelle. R. 
A. A. C. Rogers, of Pine Bluff, I. 

California. 
S. B. Axtell, of San Francisco, D. J. A. Johnson, of Downieville, D. 

A. A. t argent, of Nevada Co., R. 

Connecticut. 
J. L. Strong, of Hartford, R H. H Starkweather, of Norwich, R. 

S. W. Kellogg, of Waterbury, R. W H. Barnum, of Lime Rock, D. 
Delaware. 

The State at Large B. T. Biggs, of Summit Bridge, D. 

Florida. 

The State at Lurge Chas. M. Hamilton, of Marianna. R. 

Georgia.— [Vacant. ] 
Illinois. 
N. B. Judd, of Chicago, R. S. M. Cullom, of Springfield, TJ. R. 

T. F. Farnsworth, of St. Cn dries, R. T. W. McNcely, of Petersburg, D. 
H. C. Burchard, of Freeport, R. A. G Burr, of Carrollton, D. 

T. B. Hawley, of Rock Island, R. S. S. Marshall, of McLeansboro, D. 
E. C. Ingersoll, of Peoria, V. R. J. B. Hay, of Belleville, R. 

B. C. Cook, of Ottawa, R. J. M. Crebs, of Carmi, D. 
J. H. Moore, of Decatur, R 

The State at Large J. A. Logan, of Carbondale, R. 

Indiana. 
W. E. Niblack.of Vincennes, D. G. S. Orth, of Lafayette, R. 
M. C. Kerr, of New Albany, D. J. N. Tyner, of Peru, R. 

W. S. Holman, of Aurora, D. J. P. C. Shanks, of Jay C'rt House, R. 

G. W. Julian, of Centreville, R. W. Williams, of Warsaw, R. 

J. Coburn, of IndianapoliG, R. J. Packard, of Laporte.R 

D. W. Voorhees, of Terre Haute, D. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 25 

Ioua. 
G. W. McCrary, of Keokuk, R. W. Lougb ridge, of Oskaloosa, It. 

W. Smyth, of Marion, R. . F. W. Palmer, of Des Moines, R. 

W. B. Allison, of Dubuque, R. C. Pomeroy, of Fort Dodge, R. 

Kansas. 

The State at Large •. S. Clarke of Lawrence, R. 

Kentucky. 
L. S. Trimble, of Padueah, D. T. L. Jones, of Newport, D. 

W. N. Sweeney, of Owensboro, D. .). B. Beck, of Lexington, D. 
J. H. Lewis, of Glasgow, D. G. M. Adams, of Barbourville, D. 

J. P. Knott, of Lebanon, D. T. M. Rice, of Louisa, D. 

B. Winchester, of Louisville, D. 

Louisiana. 
1. J. P.Newsham , of St. Francis ville, R. 

A. Sheldon, of New Orleans, R 5. 

3. 

Maine 

1. J. Lynch, of Portland, R. 4. J. A. Peters, of Bangor, R. 

2. S. P. Morrill, of Farmington, R. 5. E. Hale, of Ellsworth, R. 

3. J.G. Blaine(sp'rh'se),of Au.,U R. 

Maryland. 

1. S. Hambleton, of Easton, D. 4. P. Hamill, of Oakland, D. 

2. S. Archer, of Belair, D. 5. F. Stone, of Port Tobacco, D. 

3. T. Swann, of Baltimore, D. 

Massachusetts. 
1. J. Bufflngton, of Fall River, R. 6. N. P. Banks, of Waltham, R, 
2 O Ames, of North Easton, R. 7. G. M. Brooks, of Concord, R. 

3. G. Twichell, of Brookline, R, 8. G. F. Hoar, of Worcester, R. 

4. S. Hooper, of Bostoa, R. 9. W. B. Washburn, of Greenn'd, R. 

5. B. F. Butler, of Lowell, R. 10. H. L. Dawes, of Fittsneld, R. 

Michigan. 

1. F. C. Beaman, of Adrian, R. 4. T. W. Ferry, of Grand Haven, R. 

2. W. C. Stoughton, of Sturgis, R. 5. O D. CoDger, of Port Huron, R. 

3. A. Blair, of Jackson, R. 6 R. Strickland, of St. John's, R. 

Minnesota. 

1. M. L. Wilkinson, of Mankato, R. 2. E. M. Wilson, of Minneapo's, R. 

Mississippi. 

1. G. E. Harris, of Hernando, R. 4. G. C. McKee, of Vicksburg, R. 

2. J. L. Morphis, of Pontotoc, R. 5. L. W. Perce, of Natchez, R. 

3. H. W. Barry, of Columbus, R. 

Missouri. 

1. E. Wells, of St. Louis, D. 6. R.T.VanHorn,of Kans'sc'y.R.R. 

2. G. A. Finkelnburg, of St, Lo's, R. 7. T. P. Asper, of Chillicothe, R. R. 

3. J. Pv McCormick, of Iron town, D. 8. J. P.Benjamin, of Shelbyv'e, R.R. 

4. S. H. Boyd, of Springfield, R. 9. D. P. Dyer, of Louisiana, R. 

5. S. S. Burdett, of Osceola, R. R. 

Nebraska. 

The State at Large J. Taafe, of Omaha, R. 

Nevada. 

The State at Large T. Fitch, of Belmont. R. 

New Hampshire. 

1. J. H. Ela, of Rochester, R. 3. J. Benton, of Lancaster, R. 

2. A. F. Stevens, of Nashau,R. 

Neiv Jersey. 

1. W. Moore, of May's Landing, R. 4. J. Hill, of Bounton. R. 

2. C. Haight, of Freehold, D. 5. O. Cleveland, of Jersey City, D. 

3. J. T. Bird, of Flemington, D. 

New York. 

1. H. A. Reeves, of Greenport, D. 17. W. A. Wheeler, of Malone, R. 

2. J. G. Schumaker, of Brooklyn. D. 18. S. Sanford, of Amsterdam, R. 

3. H. W. Slocum, of Brooklyn, D. 19. C. Knapp, of Deposit, R. 

4. J. Fox, of New York, D. 20. A. H. Laflin, of Herkimei, R. 

5. J. Morrissey, of New York, D. 21. A. H. Bailey, of Rome, R 

6. S. S. Cox, of New York, D. 22. J. C. Churchill, of Oswego, R. 

7. H. 0. Calkin, of New York, D. 23. D. McCarthy, of Syracuse, R. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



8. J. Brooks, of New York, D. 24. G. W. Cowles, of Clyde, R. 

9. F. Wood, of New York, D. 25. W. II. Kelsey, of Geneseo, R. 

10. O. N. Potter, of New Rochelle,D. 25. G. W. Hotcbkiss, of Binglat'n, R. 

11. C. II. Van Wyck, < f Mi Jdlet'r, R 27. H. Ward, of Belmont, R. 
12 J. H. Ketchnm, of Dover, R. 28. N. Davis, of Albion, R. 

13. J. A Griswold, of Catskill, D 20. J. Fisher, of Batavia, R. 

14. S. L May ham, of Schoharie, D. 30. D. H. Bennett, of Buffalo, R. 

15. A. II. Tanner, of Whitehall, R. 31. P. Sheldon, of Jamestown, R. 

16. O. Ferriss, of Glenn's Fall, R. 

North Carolina. 

1. C. L. Cobb, of Elizabeth City, R. 5. J. G. Lash, of Salem, R. 

2. 6. F. E. Hhober, of , D. 

3. O. H. Dockery, of Mangum, R. 7. A. H. Jones, of Asheville, R 
4. 

Ohio. 

1. P. W. Strader, of Cincinnati, D. 11. J. T. Wilson, of Tranquility, R. 

2. J. E. Stevenson, of Cincinnati, R. 12. P. Van Trump, of Lancaster, D. 

3. R, t '. Schenck, of DaytoD, R. 13. G. W. Morgan, of Mt. Vernon, D. 

4. W. Lawrence, of Belle Font'e, R. 14. M. Welkcr, of Wooster, R. 

5. W. Mungf n, of Findlay, D. 15. E. H. Moore, of Athens, R. 
C. J. A. Smith, of H illsboro, R. 10. J. A. Bingham, of Cadiz, R. 

7. J. J. Winans of Xenia, R. 17. J. A. Amoler, of Salem, R. 

8. J. Beatt.y, of Cardinston, R. 18. W. H. Upson, of Akron, R. 

9. E. F. Dickinson, of Fremont, D. 19. J. A. Garfield, of Hiram, R. 
10. E. D. Peck, of Perry sburg, R. 

Oregon. 
The State at Large J. S. Smith, of Salem, D. 

1. S. J. Randall, of PhiladelpLia, D. 13. U. Mercur, of Towanda, R. 

2. C. O'Neill, of Philadelphia, R. 14. J. B. Packer, of Sanbury, R. 

3. L. Myers, of Philadelphia, R. 15. R. J. Haldeman.of Cumbcrl'd.D. 

4. W. D. Kclley, of Philadelphia, R. 10. J. Cessna, of Bedford Co., R. 

5. C. N. Taylor, of Bristol, R. 17. D. J. Morrell, of Johnstown, R. 

6. J. D. Stiles, of Allentown, D. 18. W. H. Armstrong, of W'msp't, R 

7. W.Townscnd.of West Chester, R. 19. G. W. Scofleld, of Warren, It. 

8. J. Getz, Reading, D. 20. C. W. Gilfillan, of Franklin, R. 

9. O. J. Dickey, of Lancaster, R. 21. J. Covode, of Lockport, R. 

10. H. L. Cake, of Tamaqua. R. 22. J. S. Negley, of Pittsburg, R. 

11. D. M. Van Auken, of Milford, D. 23. D. Phelps, of Kittaning, R. 

12. G. W. Woodward, of Wilkesb'c.D. 24. J. B. Donley, of Waynesburg, R. 

Rhode Island. 
1. T. A. Jenckes, of Providence, R. 2. N. F. Dixon, of Westerly, R. 
South Carolina. 

1. 3. S. L. Hoge. of Columbia. 

2. C. C. Bowen, of Charlestown, R. 4. A. w. Wallace, of Yorkville, R 

Tennessee. 

1. R. R. Butler, of Tayborsville, R. 5. W. F. Prosser, of Nashville, R. 

2. H. Maynard, of Knoxville, U. R. 6. S. M. Arnell, of Columbia, I. R. 

3. W. B. telokes, of Alexandria, U.R. 7. I. R.Hawkins, of Huntingd'n.R. 

4. L. Tillmau, of Shelbyville, R. 8. W. T. Smith, of Memphis, R. 

Texas. 

1. G. W. Whitmore, of Tyler, R. 3. W. T. Clark, of Galveston, R 

2. J. C. Conner, of Sherman, D. 4. E. Degener, of San Antonio, R. 

Vermont. 

1. O. W. Willard. of Montpell'r, R. 3. W. C. Smith, of St. Albans, R. 

2. L. P. Poland, of St. Johnsb'y, R. 

Virginia. 

1. R. S. Aver, of Warsaw, R. 5. R. S. Ridgway, of Cool Well, C. 

2. J. H. Piatt, Jr., of Petersb'g, R. 6. W. Milnes, Jr., of Shcnand'h, C.R. 

3. C. H. Porter, of Richmond, R. 7. L. McKenzie, of" Alexand'a, U. C. 

4. G. W. Booker, of Martinsv'<\ C. 8. J. K. Gibson, of Abington, D. 

West Virginia. 

1. I. H. Duval, of Wellsburg, R. 3. J. S. Witcher, of Guyandotte, R. 

2. J. (J. McGrew, of Kingwood, U. R. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



27 



Wisconsin. 

1. H. E. Paine, of Milwaukee, R. 4. C. A. Eldridee, of Fond duLac, D. 

2. D. Atwood, of Madison, R. 5. P. Sawyer, of Oshkosh, R. 

3. A. Cobb, of Mineral Point, R. 6. C. C. Washburn, of La Cross, R. 

TERRITORIAL DELEGATES. 

Arizona. Colorado. 

R. C. McCorraick, of Tucson, I. U. A. A. Bradford, of Pueblo, R. 
Dakota. Idaho. 

T. K. Sliafer, of Idaho City, D. 

New Mexico. 
J. F. Chaves, of Santa Fe, R. 

Washington. 
S. Garfleld, of Olympia, R. 
Wyoming. 
S. F. Nuckolls, of Cheyenne, D. 



S. L. Spink, of Yancton, R. 

Montana. 
J. M. Cavanaugh, ox Helena, D. 

Utah. 
W. H. Hooper, of Salt Lake. R. 



CALIFORNIA STATE OFFICERS. 



NAMES. 


official position. 


RESIDENCE. 


Henry H. Haight... 










IT. L. Nichols 
















Los Angeles Co, 
























J.isper O'FarrelJ 

J. A. McClelland 

D. W. Gelwicks 






scc'y of Harbor Commissioners... 


San Francisco. 


O. P. Fitzgerald 


Superintends Puolio Instruction 














Edward R. Taylor 

B. F. Wa-hington 

L. L. Bullock 


Governor's Private Secretary 


Sacramento. 












W. Byrne 


Sec'y Tide Land Commissioners.. 








W. M. JJBtil 


Funded Commissioner 













































STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

Governor H. H. Haight Es-offieio President 

O. P. Fitzgerald, Superintendent Pub ic Instruction Secretary 

J. H. Widber Superintendent- Public Schools, San Francisco 

M. Furlong Superintendent Public Schools, Santa Clara Co. 

J. Leadbcatter Superintendent. Public Schools, San Joaquin Co. 

l>r. A. Trafton Superintendent Public Schools, Sacramento Co. 

jy-M A Siblcy? rt£0n '} ...San Francisco 

Office southeast corner Montgomery and Pine streets. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

Dr. Henry Gibbons, of San Francisco President 

Dr. T. M. Logan, of Sacramento Secretary 

Dr. Luke Robinson, of Santa Clara. I Dr. I. F. Montgomery, of Sacram'to. 
Dr. C. E. Stone, of Marysville. Dr. L. C. Lane, of San Francisco. 

Dr. F. W. Todd, of Stockton. i 

Meet every three months, in Sacramento. 



U. S. DISTRICT COURTS. 

U. S. CircuitCourt Hon. Lorenzo Sawyer Judge 

W. L. Sawyer Clerk 

U. S. District Court of California Hon. Ogden Hoffman Judge 

A. D. Grimwood Clerk 

U.S. Clerk District of California E. B. Cotter 

U. S. District Attorney L. D. Lattimer 

IT. S. Marshal Wm. Gouverneur Morris 

U. S. Commissioners Clerks of United States Courts 

Registrars in Bankruptcy, First Congressional District— Asher B. Bates, 

San Francisco. 
Second Congressional District— Samuel J. Clarke, Jr., San Francisco. 
Third Congressional District— R. L. Woodworth, Office, Petaluma. 



STATE JUDICIARY. 

Supreme Court. 

Residence. Term Expires. 

A. L. Rhodes, Chief Justice San Jose — 1872. 

S. W. Anderson. Associate Sacramento 1876. 

Royal T. Sprague, Associate Sacramento 1878. 

J. B. Crockett, Associate Alameda 1874. 

W. T. Wallace, Associate San Francisco 1880 

Tod Robinson, of San Francisco, is the Reporter of the Court, and George 
Seckel, of Tuolumne County, the Clerk. 

Judicial Districts. 

First District.— Composed of San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Coun- 
ties. Judge, Pablo de la Guerra, of Santa Barbara. Term expires Decem- 
ber 31st, 1875. 

Second District.— Composed of Butte, Lassen, Plumas, and Tehama 
Counties. Judge, Charles F. Lott. Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Third District.— Composed of Alameda, Monterey, Santa Clara, and 
Santa Cruz Counties. Judge, Samuel B. McKee, of Oakland. Term ex- 
pires December 2d, 1876. 

Fourth District.— Composed of a portion of San Francisco. Judge, R. F. 
Morrison, of San Francisco. Term expires, December 31st, 1875. 

Fifth Distsict.— Composed of fian Joaquin and Tuolumne Counties. 
Judge, S. II. Booker, of Stockton. Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Sixth District.— Composed of Sacramento and Yolo Counties. Judge, 
Lewis Raniage, of Sacramento. Term expires December 31st, 1875. 

Seventh District.— Composed of Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, 
and Sonoma Counties. Judge, W. C. Wallace, of Santa Rosa. Term ex- 
pires December 31st, 1875. 

Eighth District.— Composed of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Klamath 
Counties. Judge, John P. Haynes, of Crescent City. Term expires, De- 
cember 31st, 1875. 

Ninth District.— Composed of Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. 
Judge,— Roseborough, of Siskiyou. Term expires, December 31st, 1875. 

Tenth District.— Composed of Colusa, Sierra, Sutter, and Yuba Counties. 
Judge, Phil. W. Keyser, of Yuba City. Term expires, December 31st, 
1875. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 20 



Eleventh District.— Composed of Amador, Calaveras, and El Dorado 
Counties. Judge A. S. Adams, of Jackson. Term expires, December 31st, 

Twelfth District.— Composed of part of San Francisco and San Mateu 
Counties. Judge E. W. McKinstry, of San Francisco. Term expires, 
December 81st, 1875. 

Thirteenth District.— Composed of Fresno, Mariposa, Merced, Stanislaus 
and TulareCounties. Judge, A. C. Bradford, of Mariposa. Term expires. 
December 31st, 1^75. 

Fourteenth District. Composed of Nevada and Placer Counties. Judge, 
T. B. Ileardon , Nevada. Term expires, December 31st, 1875. 

Fifteenth District.— Composed of Contra. Costa and part of San Francis- 
co. Judge, S. H. Dwindle. Term expires, December 31st, 1S71. 

Sixteenth District.— Composed of Alpine, Inyo, Kern, and Mono Coun- 
ties. Judge, Tberon Reed. Term expires December 31st, 1871. 

Seventeenth District.— Composed of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and 
San Diego Counties. Judge, Murray Morrison, of Los Angeles. Term 
expires, December 31st, 1875. 



LIST OF SENATORS AND ASSEMBLYMEN OF THE 
CALIFORNIA LEGISLATURE. 

SENATORS. 

E. M. Bauvard Placer 

H. Beach Yuba 

K. J. Betge San Francisco 

W. Burnett [Dead] Sonoma 

J. N. Cbappell Shasta and Trinity 

A. Comte Sacramento 

J. Conly Butte, Plumas, and Lassen 

W. A. Coun San Diego and San Bernardino 

N. G. Curtis Sacramento 

J. T. Farley Amador and Alpine 

T. Fowler Fresno, Tulare, and Kern 

J. J. Green Contra Costa and Marin 

W. M. Gwin Calaveras 

J. S. Hagar San Francisco 

C. W. Hunter El Dorado 

S. C. Hutcbings Sutter and Yuba 

W. Irwin „ Siskiyou 

H. Kincaid San Francisco and San Mateo 

H. Larkin El Dorado 

J. H. Lawrence Mariposa, Merced, and Stanislaus 

E. J. Lewis Tehama and Colusa 

C. Maclay Santa Clara 

J. W. Mandeville [Resigned] Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 

F. A. McDougall Monterey and Santa Cruz 

Wm. Minis Solano and Yolo 

D. L. Morrill Calaveras 

L. H. Murch Del Norte, Humboldt, and Klamath 

M. B. O'Connor Nevada 

R. Pacheco , San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 

W. W. Pendegast Napa, Lake, and Mendocino 

G. C. Perkins Butte, Plumas, and Lassen 

N. M. Orr San Joaquin 

E. W. Roberts Nevada 

J. H. Saunders San Francisco 

E. Tompkins Alameda 

H. Turner Sierra 

C. A. Tweed Placer 

T. N. Wand San Francisco 

B. D. Wilson Los Angeles 

S. Wing Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 



1 


30 ALTA 


CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 






ASSEMBLY. 




A. R. Andrews 


Shasta 




P. C. Appling 


Fresno 




C. P- Berry 


Sutter 




M. Bigrgs 


Butte 




E. D. Luelling 


Alameda 


: 


J. A. Blankenship 


Monterey 


A. 0. Brown 


Alpine and Amador 




J. E. Brown 


Yuba 




M. 11. Caldcrwood 


Placer 




J. n. Carothers 






M. F. Coronel 


Los Ansreles 


i 


J. C. Crigler 


Lako and Napa 




J D\Haven 


Humboldt 




E. W. Doss 


Tulare and Kern 




J. LufiV 


Sacramento 




W. E. Eichelrotli 


Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 




A. G. Escandon 


San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 




S. J. Finney 


San Mateo 




J-I Fortune 


San Francisco 




J. Freeman 


Sacramento 




R. «'. Fryer 


Los Augeles 




C. Gihka 


El Dorado 




E. L. Green 


Calaveras 




J. Griswold 


San Francisco 




R. C. Haile 


Solano 




B. F. Huwlcy 


Nevada 




G. B. R. Hayes 


San Francisco 




M. Hayes 


San Francisco 




G. \V. Henley 


Mendocino 


B. Hemey 


Sonoma 




F. A.Hihn 


Santa Cruz 




M. Hor.m 


Sacramento 




C. G. Hubuer 


S-in Joaquin 


T. Hudson 


Sonoma 




D. Inman 


Alameda 




J. M. Johnson 


Amador and Alnino 




J. M. Kelly 


Yolo 




W. A.King 


Nevada 




J. Koutz 


Sierra 




J. Lambert 


Plumas and Lassen 




J. C. Martin 


Butto 




R. M. Martin 


Siskiyou 




C. McCtaskey 


Yuba 




C. McMillan 


San Francisco 




J. D. MeMurray 


El Dorado 




J. MeMurray 


Trill ty 




G. Mcrritt 


Yuba 




J. i . Miller 


El Dorado 




W.J. Miller 


Marin 




J. S. Mooney 


Inyo, Mono, and Tuolumne 




T. Movnihan 


San Francisco 




B. B. Muuday .... 


Sonoma 




J. E. Murphy 


* Del Norte and Klamath 




13. D. Murphy 


Santa Clara 




J. Napnthaly 


Sau Francisco 




H. B. Newell 


El Dorado 




S. T. Oates 


Nevada 




W. O'Connell 


Sin Francisco 




J. O.leil 


Sacramento 




D. M. Pool 


Mariposa 




M. Power 


Placer 




W. N. Robinson 


San Diego 




E. A. Rockwell 


Sriii Prn,nmHf'n 







G. M. Rogers San Francisco 

J. Romcr Han Francisco 

T. Ryan San Francisco 

B. J. Samnione Sierra 

J. W. Satterwhite San Bernardino 

L. Scarce Colusa ami Tehama 

W. Shoemaker Santa Clara 

W. Shores Siskiyou 

T. A. Sliccr Nevada 

R. Stevens Sarramento 

T. R. Thomas San'a Clara 

J. II. Thurston San Jo quin 

M. Watden Merced and Stanislaus 

M. Wnlclron Placer 

W. S. Williams Calaveras 

F. York Inyo, Mono and Tuolumne 

A. R. Young Calaveras 



CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS. 

The three Congressional Distric's of f he State are distributed by coun- 
ties as follows: (a new Congressional District will be formed shortly). 

First District.— The counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, 
Santa Barbara, San Luis Obisno, Tulare, Inyo, Kern, Monterey, Fresno, 
Merced, Mariposa, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, and 
San Francisco. 

Second District.— The counties of Contra Costa, Alameda, San Joaquin, 
Tuolumne, Mono, Calaveras, Amador, El Dorado, Sacramento, Placar, 
Nevada and Alpine. 

Third District.— The counties of Marin, Sonoma, NaDa, Lake, Solanc» 
Yolo, Sierra, Yu'ia, Lassen, Butte, Plumas, Tehama, Colusa, Mendocino* 
Humboldt, Trinity, Shasta, Siskiyou, Klamath, and Del Norte. 



SAN FRANCISCO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. 

City and County Officers. 

Mayor. Thos. H Selby 

Mayor's Clerk Wm. V. Wells 

Sheriff. P. J. White 

County Clerk John Ilanna 

County Recorder W. L. Higsrins 

Treasurer Otto Kloppen burg 

Assessor Levi Rosener 

i istrict Attorn' y Henry II. Byrne 

Assistant District Attorney T. W. Freelon 

County Surveyor W. P. Humphreys 

Chief of Police Patrick Crowley 

Coroner Jona. Lei term an 

Public Administrator Jacob Benjamin 

Auditor Monroe Ash bury 

City and County Attorney Wm. C. Burnett 

Superinteudent of Streets _ J. M. Ashley 

Harbor Master Martin Bulger 

Tax Collector Alexander Ausin 

Harbor Commissioner John J. Marks 

Prosecuting Attorney, Police Court Davis Louderback 

License Collector Ed. P. Buckley 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



1st Wara Stewart Menzies 

2d Ward.. John Harrold 

3d Ward Jas. J. Kenny 

4th Ward Tim. McCarthy 

5th Ward Robt. Goodwin 

6th Ward Alexander Badlam 



Board of Supervisors. 



7th Ward Alex. B. Forbes 

8th Ward C. R. Story 

9th Ward A. J. Shrader 

10th Ward Jas. F. Adams 

11th Ward Ewd. Commins 

12th Ward M. J. Kelly 



Clerk, Board of Supervisors John A. Russell 

Deputy Clerk T. Reynolds 

Seliool Directors. 

1st Ward W. A. Plunkett 

2d Ward Jos. Clement 

31 Ward Robt. Lewellyn 

4th Ward C. H. Reynolds 

5th Ward John Shine 

6th Ward J. W. Mather 



7th Ward J. F. Meagher 

8fch Ward Er.'gar Briggs 

9th Ward Ewd. Kruse 

10th Waid A. K. Hawkins 

11th Ward M. J. Donovan 

12tn Ward J. M. Burnett 

Superintendent Public Schools Jas. H. Widber 

Clerk, Board of Education Geo. Beanston 



BOARD OP HEALTH OF SAW FRANCISCO. 

Mayor Thos. H. Selby Ex-officio President 

Dr. H. H. Toland, Dr. II. H. Hubbard, 

Dr. G. Holland, Dr. J. C. Shorb. 

Clerk Wm. V. Wells 

Health Officer Dr. C. M. Bates 

Deputy Health Officer and Quarantine Officer Dr. Wm. H. Rogers 



COURTS IN SAN FRANCISCO. 

Fourth Judicial District Robert Morrison, Judge 

Twelfth Judicial District E. W. McKinstry, Judge 

Fifteenth Judicial District S. H. Dwinelle, Judge 

County Court John A. Stanley, Judge 

Probate Court S. S.Wright, Judge 

Municipal Criminal Court Delos Lake, Judge 

Police Court „ W. D. Sawyer, Judge 

Justice's Court. 

J. C. Pennie Chief Justice 

T. W. Taliaferro Justice 

F. A. Saw.ver Justice 

Chas. Corkery Justice 

M. Cooney Justice 

Commissioners. 

Fire Commissioners.— Chas. E. McLane, P. H. Freeman, Saml. Rainey, 
Jr. ; John Rosenfeld , Jas. H. Reynolds. 

New City Hall Commissioners.— P. H. Canavan, J. G. Eastland, C. 
E. McLane. Secretary— Robert George. Office, room No. 2, over Donohoe 
& Kelly's bank, corner of Sacramento and Montgomery streets. 

Park Commissioners.— C. F. McDermott, S. F. Butterworth, D. W. Con- 
nelly. Secretary— A. J. Moulder. Office, Friedlander's building, room 
No. 5, corner Sansome and California streets. 

Montgomery Avenue Commissioners.— J. C. Maynard, R. H. Sinton, 
A. M. Hay. Secretary— R. J. Bush. Experts to examine buildings on the 
line of the Avenue to be destroyed and damaged by the opening of said 
Avenue are Hon. Samuel Purely, John Calvert, T. P. Riordan. Office 
Montgomery block, rooms Nos. 1, 2 and 3. 

Montgomery Street, South:, Commissioners.— I. G. Messic, D. L. Mc- 
Donald, R. E. Doyle. Secretary— N. M. Chadwick. Office, 415 Montgom- 
ery street. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 33 



Street Assessment and Contract Commissioners.— Thos. Farrish, 
R. Aug. Thompson. Secretary— H. Aug. Thompson. Office, 606 Mont- 
gomery stieet. 

Marine Board.— For licensing sailors' boarding houses and shipping 
masters. John Wise, J. F. Cowdery, P. Crowley, Chief of Police. Office, 
corner Front and Jackson. 

Laguna Survey Commissioners.— Scott Tidball, Mat. Canavan, Chas. 
L. Weller. Secretary— Thos. H. Reynolds. Office, corner Montgomery 
and Washington streets. 

Funded Debt Commissioners.— Hon. Thos. H. Selby," Monroe Ash- 
bury, O. Kloppenburg. Office, City and County Treasurer. 

Police Commissioners.— lion. Thos. H. Selbv, W. D. Sawyer, P. Crow- 
ley. Secretary— Wm. Short. Office, Chief Police. 

Fish Commissioners.— S. R. Throckmorton, B. B. Redding. 

FEDERAL OFFICERS IN SAN FRANCISCO. 

Commanding the Division of the Pacific Maj-Gen. J. M. Schofield 

Commanding the Department of California Maj-Gen. E. O. C. Ord 

Paymaster Division of the Pacific Brig-Gen. Hiram Leonard 

f Brevet Brig-Gen. B. S. Alexander 

U.S. Engineers Pacific Coast,] Br T* ^Majc? ffiS 

I Lieutenant-Colonel R. S. Williamson 

Collector of Port T. G. Phelps 

Surveyor of Port Chas. CI avion 

Naval Officer Geo. W. Bowie 

Superintendent U. S. Branch Mint : O. H. La Grange 

U. S. Assistant Treasurer C. J. Felion 

Collector of Internal Revenue Geo. On 1 ton 

Assessor H. T. Til den 

Postmaster N. B. Stone 

U. S. Land Officer II. G. Rollins 

Mail Agent Alfred Burst ow 

U. S. Surveyor-General for California Sherman Day 

Indian Affairs John B. Mcintosh 



INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

President Charles D. Carter. I Treasurer Henry A. Cobb. 

Vice-President B. D. Dean, M. D. Superintendent J. C. Pelton. 

Secretary Jas. S. Thomson. | 

Managers— Jacob Deeth, Wm. H. L. Barnes, James Laidley, Edward 
Martin, J. R. Kelley.Jas. Palache, Dr. J. C. Shorb, Richard Tobin.Jas. 
Adams, \V. O. Audrews, M. Ashbury, A. Badlam, H. W. Byington, W. W. 
Dodge, II. M. Black. 

This institution is designed for the reformation and care of idle and 
dissolute children, as also those convicted of crime. It was established 
by an act of the Legislature, passed April 15, 1858. The Act provided that 
the necessary funds for the erection of the buildings should be raised by 
an enrollment of life and annual members, and when a fund of $10,000 
had been so realized, the Board of Supervisors was directed to appropri- 
ate the sum of (20,000 from the city treasury to that object. Sixty life 
members and four hundred and thirty-three annual and contributing 
members enrolled themselves at once, and the sum of §10,830 were raised, 
thus placing at the disposal of the Board $;0,850. 

The Board obtained a tract of land of one hundred acres, lying five 
and a half miles to the south of the city on the San Jose road, seventy- 
five of which are now under cultivation. The building, which is a two 
story brick with basement, is placed near the middle ol the tract. There 
are now nearly two hundred boys in the school, and quite a number of 
girls, under the charge of the Board of Managers, are taken care of in the 
Magdalen Asylum, at the expense of the Board. Connected with the in- 

3 ~"™ ~~~ 



34 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



stitution is a school with competent instructors, and a good common 
school education is imparted. There are also shoe shops, tailoring shops, 
saddlery shops, farming, at which the boys are placed. Other work shops 
will soon be erected. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Board cf Regents. 

His Excellency Henry H. Haight Governor 

His Honor WilUam Holden Lieutenant-Governor 

Hon. Geo. H. Rogers Speaker of the Assembly 

Hon. 0. P. Fitzgerald Superintendent Public Instruction 

Charles P. Reed President State Agricultural Society 

A. S. Hallidio President] Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco 

Hon. Samuel Merritt, M. D Oakland 

Hon. John T. Dovle Menlo Park 

Hon. Richard P. Hammond San Francisco 

Hon. .Tohn W. Dwindle Oakland 

Rev. Horatio SLebbins San Francisco 

Hon. Lawrence Archer San Jose 

Hon. William Watt Gra^s Valley 

Hon. Samuel B. McKee Oakland 

Louis Sachs San Francisco 

Hon. Edward Tompkins Oakland 

J. Mo a Moss Tcmescal 

S. F. Butterworth San Francisco 

Hon. John S. Hager San Francisco 

A. J Bowie, M. D San Francisco 

William C. Ralston San Francisco 

John B. Felton Oakland 

Officers of the Board. 

His Excellency H. H. Haight President 

Andrew J. Moulder. Secretary 

W. C. Ralston Treasurer 

Faculty and Officers. 

Professor Henry Durant President of University 

John Le Conte, M. D Professor of Physics and Industrial Mechanics 

Joseph Le Conte, M. D Prof, of Geology, Natural History and Botany 

Martin Kelloger, A. M Professor of Ancient Languages 

W. T. Welcker Professor of Mathematics 

Paul Pioda Professor of Modern Languages 

Ezra S. Carr, M. D Professor of Agriculture, Agricultural Chemistry, 

Horticulture, Chemistry, Mining and Metallurgy. 
Wm. Swinton, A. M Professor of English Language and Literature, in- 
cluding Rhetoric and Logic. 

Hon. Stephen J. Field Professor of Law 

Frank Soule, Jr Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

Robert E. Ogilby Instructor of Drawing 

George Tait Master of the Fifth Class 

Medical Department. 

Dr. H. H. Toland Prof, of Surgery I Dr. C. F. Buckley Anatomy 

Dr. John Le Conte Physiology | Dr. J. C. Shorb Clinical Medicine 

Dr. EzraS. Carr Chemistry I Dr. J. Blake Midwifery 

Dr. J. B. Stillman Materi Medica | Dr. T. Bennett..Prin. <tPrac. of Med. 

Miltary Instructors Prof. W. T. Welcker, and Asst. Prof., F. Soule Jr. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 35 



Organization of the University. 

The University consists of Ave distinct and independent colleges, viz: 
Four " Colleges of Arts " and one " College of Letters." As follows: 
I- A State College of Asriculture, "1 

2— A State Col lege of Mechanic Arts, 

3— A S'ato College of Mines, \ Colleges of Arts. 

4— A Stare Col lege of Civ a Engineering, 
5— A state College of Letters. J 

The full course of instruction in each college consists of its appropriate 
studies, and continues for at least four years. Each college confers a 
proper der/ree, at. the end of the course, upon such students as are found, 
upon examination, to be proficient thi rein. 

The Universky of California was established by an Act of the Legisla- 
ture. It has a, grant of 150,000 acres of land in this State, donated by Con- 
gress, of which 30 000 have been sold. Atthe lastsession of the Legislature 
an Endowment Bill was passed and signed for its benefit, by which itwill 
receive, in the course of a year or two, 850,000 per annum from thesa es of 
tide land*-. The site chosen for the University Buildings, seven in all, 
consists of 200 acres of land in the town of Berkeley, a few miles from the 
city of Oakland. Within the past lew months, F. L. A. Pioche, E*q., has 
presented to the University his extensive and valuable Library, Museum 
and Cabinet, valued at $80,000. In the city of Oakland, this institution, 
which promises to be one of the greatest fountains of learning in this 
country, has a block of land, with buildings thereon, at which instruction 
is being imparted to the students until the completion of buildings in 
Berkeley. 



THE YEAR 1871. 

Chronological Eras. 

The year 1871, which comprises the latter part of the 95th and the begin- 
ning of the 96th year ot the Independence of the United States of America, 
corresponds to: 
The year 6585 of the Julian period; 

" " 7379-10 of the Bvzantine; 

" " 56:51-2 of the Jewish Era; 

" " 2624 since the foundation of Rome; 

" " 2647 of the Olympiads, or the second year of the 662d Olympiad, 
commencing July, 1861, if we fix the Era of the Olympiads 
at 776}4 years before Christ, or near the beginning of July of 
the year 3939 of the Julian period; 

" " 2183 of the Grecian Era, or the Era of the Seleucidse; 

" " 1587 of the Era of Diocletian; 

" " 1288 of the Mohammedan Era, or the Era of Hegira, 

" " 1288 of Mohammed begins April 24. 

Leap Year. 

Every year, the number of which is divisible by four without a remain- 
der, is a leap year, except the last year of the century, which is a leap 
year only when divisible by four hundred without a remainder. Thus 
the year 1900 will not be leap year. 



Up to 1781, when Sir "William Herschel discovered the distant Uranus, 
but six planets were known to constitute our solar system. Since then, 
through the improvements in the telescope, 107 small planets have been 
discovered, of which 23, or nearly one-fifth, have been the trophies of the 
scientific skill of American astronomers. Of these, 17 were discovered by 
two astronomers since May, 1861; 9 by Prof. Watson, of the University of 
Michigan, and 8 by Prof. Peters, of Hamilton College, New York. 



36 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



UNITED STATES POSTAGE. 



Tariff for Foreign Countries. 



®- The Asterisk (*) indicates that in cases where it is 
prefixed, unless the letter be registered, prepayment is 
optional; in all other cases, prepayment is required. 



COUNTRIES. 



For Eeferences a 1> c <fcc, see Notes at end of list 



Book Packets, 
Prints, & Pat. 
terns or Sam. 



o o 



3| 



Africa— see Gambia, Gold Coast, Sierra L^one, 

Liberia, Cape of Good Hope, and Natal. 

Alexandretta, closed mail, via England 

Alexandria, closed mail, via England 

do. by British mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 

Algeria, via England 

Anam, (Cochin China,) via England 

Argentine Republic, American Packet, 23d each 

month, from New York 

Aspinwall (Registered letters, 18c. per half oz.... 
Australia, British mail, via Southampton 

do. British mail, via Marseilles 

do. via San Francisco, 10th each month .. 

Austria, closed mail, via England 

Azores Islands, via Southampton 

do via England 

Baden, closed mail, viaEngland 

Bahamas, by direct steamer, from New York ... 

Bakeu, closed mail, via England 

Batavia, British mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 

Bavaria, closed mail, via England 

Belgium 

Belgrade, closed mail, via England 

Balize (Br. Honduras) Br. packet, viaN. Orleans 

Berlat, closed mail, via England 

Bermuda, British mail, via Halifax 

Bogota (New Grenada), Br. mail, via Aspinwall 

Bolivia, British mail, via Panama 

Borneo, via Southampton 

Botutschany, closed mail, via England 

Bourbon, via England 

Brazils, via England 

do. by Am. pkt, 23d each month, from N. Y. 

Bremen, closed mail, via England .7 

British Columbia (if unpaid, 10 cts per half oz.) 
Buenaventura (N. G.) Br. mail, via Aspinwall 
Buenos Ayres, Am. pkt, 23d each mo. from N. Y. 

do. viaEngland .;$ 

Bukarest, closed mail, via England 

Burgas, closed mail, viaEngland 

Burmah, closed mail, via England 

Canada (letters, if unpaid, 10c. per half oz.) 

Canary Islands, via England 

Cape of Good Hope, via England 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



87 



0®- The Asterisk C) indicates that in cases where it i: 
preiixrd, unk-sf; the letter be registered, prepayment is 
optional ; in all other cases, prepayment is required. 



COUNTRIES. 



For References a 1> c Ac, see Notes at end of list. 



Capo do Verde Islands, via England 

Carthagena, N. G., British mail, via Aspinwall 

Central America 

Ceylon, British mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 

Chili, British mail, via Panama 

China (see Hong Kong) Am. packet, via S.F — 

do. closed mail, via England 

do. except Hong Kong, British mail, vial 
Southampton ] 

do. do. do. via Marseilles 

Cochin China— sec Anam. 

Constantinople, closed mail, via England 

do. via England 

Corsica 

Costa Rica 

Cuba, direct 

Curacon, British mail, viaSt. Thomas 

Cux haven— see German States 

Denmark, closed mail, via England 

East Indies, British, via San Frn.nciseo 

do. British mail, via Southampton 

do. do. viaMarseilles 

do. closed mail, via England 

Ecuador, British mail, via Panama 

Egvpt (Lower) closed mail, via England 

do. (Middle) do. do 

do. (Upper) do. - do. 

England— see Great Britain. 

Falkland Islands, via England 

Fernando Po, via England 

Fokshan, closed mail, via England 

France 

do. open mail, via England 

Frankfort, closed mail, via England. 

Galatz, closed mail, via England 

Gambia, via England 

German States, closed mail, via England 

Gibraltar, via England.. 

Gold Coast, via England 

Great Britain and Ireland 

fiST" Rates on Book Packets, Patterns or Sam- 
ples, to Great Britain and Ireland— 
Prepayment compulsory : 

Not over 1 oz «. 2 cents 

Over 1 oz. and not over 2 oz 4 cents 

Over 2oz. and not over 1 oz C cents 

Over 4 oz., C cent s each 4 oz. or fraction thereof 
Greece, closed mail, via England 

do. via British mail 

Grey town 



Postage 
on 

Li'ttrrs. 



Book Packets, 
Prints, A Pat- 
tens or Sam- 
ples. 



38 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 


0®- The Asterisk (*) indicates that in cases -where it is 

I prefixed, unless the letter be registered, prepayment is 

optional ; in all other cases, prepayment is required. 


Postage 
Letters. 


Newspapers, 
Book Packets, 
Prints, & Pat- 
terns or Sam- 
ples. 


ft 

M 

8"* 
S3 


COUNTRIES. 
H®* For References abc <tc, see Notes at end of list. 


.3 8 


■g o 


i 

1 
» 


-.9 



o"JJ 

•Si's. 

m 


Guadaloupe, British mail, via St. Thomas 


CTS. 


CTS. 
18 

10 
10 
18 

•■•10 
10 

•■•10 
12 
28 
36 

10 

=■-13 

TO 
#10 

10 

28 
36 

27 
10 
28 
80 
22 
21 
28 
30 
-••-J 5 
16 
16 
-■'■-10 
#10 

16 

28 

IS 
21 
10 
#10 

■••■■13 
28 
36 
28 
18 
16 


CT:3. 

4 
2 
2 
4 
4 
2 
4 
2 
G 
8 

2 
7 

"4" 

2 
6 

8 

13 

2 

&6 

68 

6 

8 

6 

8 

8 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

68 

4 

8 
8 
4 

7 

6 6 

6 8 

6 4 

4 

4 


CTS. 
...„. 

4 

"s" 

4 

8 
6 
14 

18 

10 
11 

14" 

18 

17 
4 

14 

18 

14 

12 

14 

18 

12 

12 

12 
8 
8 

12 
14 

18" 

"s" 

11 
14 

18 
12 
10 
12 


CTS. 

...... 

„.„. 

6 
14 
18 

11 
...„. 

"l' 4 " 

18 

"u 

18 

14 

12 

14 

18 

12 

12 

12 
8 
8 

12 
14 

"is" 
...... 

11 

14 
18 
12 
10 
12 


CCS. 

8 
...... 

"'8' 

"iff 

16 

8 

16 
8 

8 
'17" 

"id." 

16 
16 

8 
16 
16 

8 
16 
16 

8 

8 

16 

16 

8 
16 
...„. 

8 
16 






















Honduras (British) Br. Packet, via New Orleans 
Hong Kong, British mail, via Southampton 




do. and independent Chinese p-rts of 
Canton, Swatow, Amoy, and Foo- 
chow, by American packet, via San 




Honolulu— see Sandwich Islands. 
Hungary— see Austria. 




India— see East Indies. 








Ireland— see Groat Britain. 

Jamaica (Registered letters 18c. per half oz.) 








do. do. - do. clos. mail viaEng 
do. American packet, via San Francisco ... 




















































a 16 


Manilla, or Manila— see Phillippine Islands. 
Martinique, British mail, via St. Thomas 






Mecklenburg, closed mail, via England.. #fc 

Minorca— see «pain. 




Moluccas, British mail, via Southampton 








do. Am. pkt., 23d of each month, fm. N.Y. 











ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



B0- Tho Asterisk (*) indicates that in cases where it is 
prefixed, unless the letter be registered, prepayment 
optional; in all other cases, prepayment is required. 



COUNTRIES. 



K3~ For references ahc &c, see Notes at end of list 



Nassau, N. P. by direct steamer from N Y 

Natal, via England 

Netherlands 

New Brunswick (letters, if unpaid, 10c. pr %Oz) 

Newfoundland 

New Granada (except Aspinwall and Panama) 

British mail, via Aspinwall 

New South Wales, Br. mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles .... 

do. via San Francisco, 10th each mo. 

New Zealand, British mail, via Southampton... 

do. do. via Marseilles 

do. via San Francisco, 10th each mo- 
Nicaragua 

Nice.. 



Norway, closed mail, via Enaland 

Nova Scotia (letters, if unpaid, 10c. per half oz ) 

Panama 

Paraguay, Am. pkt, 23d each month, from N.Y. 

Penang, Br. mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 

Pern, British mail, via Panama 

Phillippinc Islands, Br. mail, viaSonthampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 

Poland (Prussian or Austrian), closed mail, via 

England 

do. (Russian), closed mail, via England 

Pondicherry 

do. via England 

Porto Rico, British mail, via San Juan 

Portugal, via England 

Prevesa. closed mail, via England 

Prince Edward's Island (letters, if unpaid, 10c. 

per half ounce 

Prussia, closed mail, via England 

Queensland, British mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 

do. via San Francisco, 10th each month 

Rhodes, via North German Union, direct™.. 

do. do. closed mail, via England 

Roumania, closed mail, via England 

Russia, clo edmail, via England 

Sandwich Islands 

Santa Martha, British mail, via Aspinwall 

Sardinian States, direct closed mail, via Eng 

do. closed man, via England 

Savoy 

Saxony, closed mail, via England 

Scotland— see Great Britain. 

Servia, closed mail, viaEngland 

Siam, British mail, via Southampton 

do. do. via Marseilles 



Newspapers, 
Boon Packets, 
Prints, & Pat- 
terns or Sam- 
ples. 



a 

-j 

7 1 
bG 14 

08 I 18 



...„. 




13 


8 




5 




8 


10 




II 


Hi 


is 




10 


8 


14 


l(i 


IS 





40 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



3?" The Asterisk (*) indicates that, in cases v/here it is 
prefixed, unless the letter be registered, prepayment is 
optional ; in all other cases, prepayment is required. 



COUNTRIES. 



■ For Referents a. 1» e &c, see Notes at end of list. 



Sicilies (The Two), direct closed mail, via Eng. 
do, closed mail, via England ... 

Sierra Leone, via England 

Singapore, British mail, via, Southampton 

do. via Marseilles 

do. via San Francisco 

Spain, via England 

do. open mail 

St- Helena, via England 

Sumatra, British mail, via .Southampton 

do. do^ via Marseilles 

Sweden, closed mail, via England 

Switzerland, direct closed mail, via England... 
Syria— see Turkey. 

Tangiers, via England 

Tasmania— see Van Dieman's Land. 

Tunis, via England 

Turkey (European and Asiatic). Letters for 
Adrianoplc, Antivari, Beyrout, Burgas, 
Caiffa, Cavallo, Candia, Canea, Constanti- 
nople, Ozernarroda, Dardanelles, Durazzo, 
Gallipoli, Jaffa, Janina, Jerusalem, Ine- 
boli, Kusrendji, Lagos, Larnica, Mitylene, 
Philippopolis, Prevesa, Rhodes, Rust- 
chuck, Sa'onica, Sams-oun, Seres, Santi 
Quaranti, Sinope, Smyrna, Sophia, Sulina, 
Tenedos. Trebizond, Tchesme, Tultcha, 
Valona, Varna, Volo, and Widdin (closed 

mail, via England) 

Turk's Island 

Tuscany, direct closed mail, via England 

do. closed mail, via England 

Uruguay, by Am. pkt., 23d each mo. from N.Y. 
Vancouver Island (letters, if unpaid, 10 cents 

per half ounce 

Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania, British mail, 

via Southampton 

do. British mail, via Marseilles 

do. via San Francisco, 10th each month 

Venezuela, by American Venezuelan packet ... 
Victoria (Port Philip) Br. mail, via Southamp. 

do. do do. via Marseilles 

do. via San Francisco, 10th each month 

Wales— see Great Britain. 

West Indies (British and Danish), Am. packet, 

23d each month, from N. Y .?.... 

do. (British) Brit mail, via St. Thomas... 
(Registered letters, 18c. per half oz.)... 

do. (not British) do. do 

Wallachia, closed mail, via England 

Wurtemberg, closed mail, via England 

Yanaon, by direct mail to France 



Newspapers, 
Book Packets, 
Prints, & Pat- 
terns or Sam- 
Pies. 



«o 



t'TS. 

8 

12 
12 
14 

IS 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



41 



Reference to United States Postage Tariff. 

a. When the letter a is prefixed, the foreign postage (which in each case is 12 cents) 
is increased by an additional rate for every 1% grammes (,' j oz.) or fraction thereof. The 
United States inland and Atlantic sea postage (which in each case is 4 cents the single 
rate) is increased by an additional rate for every 13 grammes ('a oz.) or fraction thereof. 

b. Where the letter 1> is prefixed, an additional rate is to be added to the foreign por- 
tion of the postage for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof, if the newspaper exceeds 4 
ounces in weight. Tne foreign postage, in each case, is ascertained by deducting from 
the amount set down the sum of 2 cents, which is the United States portion of the post- 
age on a single newspaper, regardless of weight. In all other cases, tne postage is for 
each newspaper without regard to its weight, when sent in British mail. 

The book and pattern post to Egypt via British mail extends only to Alexandria, Cairo 
and Suez. 

Direct postal communication between this country and the North German Union has 
been suspended on account of the war now existing between France and Prussia, and 
that all correspondence for the North German Union, and through it to countries be- 
yond, must be sent via England. 



TABLE OF STAMP DUTIES. 

Agreement or contract, otber than domestic and inland bills of 
lading and those specified in this schedule: any appraisement 
value or damage, or for any other purpose: for e vary sheet or 
piece of paper upon which either of the same shallhe written. $ 05 

Provided, that if more than one appraisement, agreement, or 
contract shall be wiitten upon one sheet or piece of paper, five 
cents for each and, every additional appraisement, agreement 
or contract. 

Bank Check, draft, or order for the payment of any sum of money 
whatsoever, drawn upon any bank, banker, or trust company, 
or for any sum exceeding ten dollars drawn upon any other 
person or persons, companies or corporations, at sight or on 
demand 02 

Bill, of Exchange (inland), draft, or order lor the payment of 
any sum of money, not exceeding one hundred dollars, other- 
wise than at sightorondemand.orany pi-omissory note(except 
bank-notes issued for circulation, and checks made and in- 
tended to be forthwith presented, and which shall be presented 
to a bank or banker for payment), or any memorandum, check, 
receipt or other written or printed evidence of an amount of 
money to be paid on demand, or at a time designated, for a 
sum not exceeding one hundred dollars* 05 

And for every additional one hundred dollars, or factional part 

thereof in excess of one hundred dollars 05 

Bill of Exchange (foreign), or letter of credit, drawn in but pay- 
able out of the United (States, if drawn singly, or otherwise 
than in a set of three or more, according to the custom of mer- 
chants and bankers, shall pay tliosame rates of duty as inland 
bills of exchange or promissory notes 

If drawn in sets of three or more: For everv bill of each set, 
where the sum made payable shall not exceed one hundred 
dollars, or thy equivalent thereof, in any foreign currency in 
which such bills may be expressed, according to the standard 
of value fixed by the United States 02 

And for every additional hundred dollars or fractional part thereol 

in excessof one hundred dollars 02 

Bill of Lading or receipt (other than charter-party), for any 
goods, merchandise, or effects, to to be exported from a port or 
place in the United States to any foreign port or place 10 

Bill of Sale by which any ship or vessel, or any patt thereof, 
shall be conveyed to or vested in any other person or persons, 
when the consideration shall not exceed five hundred dwllars... 50 

"The Act passed July 13, 1870, repeals, the tax on Promissory Notes for sums less than 
$100. 



42 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Exceeding five hundred and not exceeding one thousand dol 

lars 1 00 

Exceeding one thousand dollars lor every additional amount 

of five hundred dollars, or fractional part thereof 50 

Bond.— For indemnifying any person for the payment of any sum 
of money, where the money ultimately recoverable thereupon 
is one thousand dollars or less 50 

"Where the money ultimately recoverable thereupon exceeds one 
thousand dollars, for every additional one thousand dollars 
or fractional part thereof in excess of one thousand dollars 50 

Bond for the due execution or performance of the duties of any 

office 1 00 

Bond of any description, other tban such as may be reauired in 
legal proceedings, or used in connection with mortgage deeds, 
and not otherwise charged in this schedule 25 

Certificate of stock in any incorporated company i5 

Certificate of profits, or any certificate or memorandum show- 
ing an interest in 1 he property or accumulations of any incor- 
porated company, if for a sum not less than ten dollars and 
not exceeding fifty dollars 10 

Exceeding fifty dollars and notexceeding one thousand dollars 25 

Exceeding one thousand dollars, for every additional one thou- 
sand dollars, or Jractional part thereof 25 

Certifcate.— &ffy certificate of damage, or otherwise, and all 
other certificates or documents issued by any port warden, 
marine surveyor, or other person acting as such 25 

Certificate of deposit of any sum of money in any bank or 
trust company, or with any banker or person acting as such— 

If for a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars 02 

ior a sum exceeding one hundred dollars 05 

Certificate of any other descript on than those specified 05 

Charter-Party.— Contract or agreement for the charter of any 
ship or vessel, or steamer, or any letter, memorandum, or 
other writing, between the captain, master or owner, or person 
acting as agent of any ship or vessel, or steamer, and any other 
person or persons for cr relating to the charter of such ship or 
vessel, or steamer, or any renewal or transfer thereof, if the 
registered tonnage of such ship or vessel, or steamer does not 
exceed one hundred and fifty tons 1 00 

Exceeding one hundred and fifty tons, and not exceeding three 

hundred tons 3 00 

Exceeding three hundred tons, and not exceeding six hundred 

tons 5 00 

Exceeding six hundred tons 10 00 

Contract.— Broker's note, or memorandum of sale of any goods 
or merchandise, real estate or property of any kind or descrip- 
tion issued by brokers or persons acting as such, for each note 
or memorandum of sale 10 

Bill or memorandum of the sale on contract for the sale of stocks, 
bonds, gold or silver bullion, coin, promissory notes, or other 
securities, shall pay a stamp tax at the rate in section ninety- 
nine. 

Conveyance.— Deed, instrument, or. writing, whereby any lands, 
tenements or other realty sold shall be granted, assigned, trans- 
ferred, or otherwise conveyed to, or vested in the purchaser or 
purchasers, or any other person or persons, by his, her or their 
direction, when the consideration or value does not exceed five 
hundred dollars 50 

When the consideration exceeds five hundred dollars, and does 

not exceed one thousand dollars 1 00 

And for every additional five hundred dollars, or fractional part 

thereof in excess of one thousand dollars 50 

Entry of any goods, wares, or merchandise at any custom-house, 
either for consumption or warehousing, not exceeding one hun- 
dred dollars in value 25 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 43 



Exceeding one hundred dollars, and not exceeding five hundred 

dollars in value 50 

Exceeding five hundred dollars iu value 100 

Entry for the withdrawal of any goods or merchandise iroin 

bonded warehouse 50 

Insurance (Life).— Policy of insurance, or other instrument, by 
whatever name the same shall be c » lied, whereby any insur- 
ance shall be made upon any life or lives— 

When theamout insured shall not exceed one thousand dollars 25 

Exceeding one thousand dollars, and not exceeding Ave thousand 

dollars 50 

Exceeding five thousand dollars 1 00 

Insurance (Marine, Inland and Fire).— Each policy of insur- 
ance or other instrument, by whatever name the same shall 
be called, by which insurance shall bo made or renewed upon 
property of any description, whether against perils by the sea 
or by Are, or other peril of any kind, made by any insurance 
company or its agents, or by any other company or person, the 
premium upon which does not exceed ten dollars 10 

Exceeding ten and not exceeding fifty dollars 25 

Exceeding fifty dollars 50 

Lease, agreement, memorandum, or contract for the hire, use or 
rent of any land, tenement, or portion thereof, where the rent 
or rental value is -hree hundred dollars per annum, or less 50 

Where the rent or rental value exceeds t he sum of three hundred 
dollars per annum, for each additional two hundred dollars, or 
fractional part thereof in excess of three hundred dollars 50 

Manifest for custom-house entry or clearance of the cargo of any 
ship, vessel or steamer, for a foreign port— 

If the registered tonnage of such ship, vessel or steamer, does not 

exceed three hundred tons 1 00 

Exceeding three hundred tons, and not exceeding six hundred 

tons 3 00 

Exceeding six hundred tons 5 00 

Mortgages of lands, estate, or property, real or personal, herit- 
able or movable whatsoever, where the same shall be made as 
asecurityfor the payment of any definite and certain sum of 
money lent at the time or previously due and owing or for- 
borne to be paid, being payable; also any conveyance of any 
lands, estate, or property whatsoever, in trust, 10 bo sold or 
otherwise converted into money, which shall be intended only 
as security, and shall be redeemable before the sale or other 
disposal thereof, either by express stipulation or otherwise; or 
any personal bond given as security for the payment of any 
definite or certain sum of money exceeding one hundred dol- 
lars, and not exceeding five hundred dollars 50 

Exceeding five hundred dollars, and not exceeding one thousand 

dollars 1 00 

And for every additional five hundred dollars, or fractional part 

thereof, iu excess of one thousand dollars* 50 

Provided, 'J hat upon each and every assignment or transfer 
of a policy of insurance, or the renewal or cmtiuuanceof any 
agreement, contract or charter, by letter or otherwise, a stamp 
dutysball be required and paid equal to that imposed on the 
original instrument: And provided further, That.upon each and 
every assignment of any lease a stamp duty shall be required 
and paid equal to that imposed on the original instrument, in- 
creased by a stamp duty on the consideration or value of the 
assignment equal to thatimposed upon the conveyance of land 
for similar consideration or value. 

•The Act passed July 13, 199!). provides that no stamp shall be required upon the 
transfer or nssignment of a mortgage, where it, or the instrument it secures, has been 
once duly stamped. 



44 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Passage Ticket by any vessel from a port in the United States to 

a foreign port, not exceeding thirty-five dollars 50 

Exceeding thirty-five dollars, and not exceeding fifty dollars 1 00 

And for every additional fifty dollars or fractional part thereof in 

excess of fifty dollars 1 00 

Power of Attorney for the sale or transfer of any stock, bonds, 
or scrip, or for the collection of any dividends or interest 
thereon 25 

Power op Attorney or Proxy for voting at any election lor offi- 
cers of any incorporated company or society, except religious, 
charitable, or literary societies, or public cemeteries 10 

Power of Attorney to receive or collect rents 25 

Power of Attorney to sell and convey real estate, or to rent or 

lease the same 1 00 

Power of Attorney for any other purpose 50 

Probate of Will, or letters of administration. Where the estate 
and effects for or in respect of which such probate or letters of 
administration applied for shall be sworn or declared not to 
exceed the value of two thousand dollars 1 00 

Exceeding two thousand dollars, for every additional thousand 
dollars, or fractional part thereof in excess of two thousand 

dollars 50 

Provided, Thsffi no stamp, either for probate of wills, or letters 
testamentary, or of administration, or on administrator or 
guardian bond, shall be required when the value of the estate 
and effects, real and personal, does not exceed one thousand 
dollars: Provided further, That no stamp tax shall be required 
upon any papers necessary to be used for the collection from 
the Government of claims by soldiers or their legal represen- 
tatives of the United States, for pensions, back pay, bounty, 
or for property lost in the servije. 

Protest.— Upon the protest of every note, bill of exchange, ac- 
ceptance, check, or draft, or any marine protest, whether 
protested! by a notary public or by any other officer who 
may be authorized by the law of any State or States, to make 

such protest 25 

Provided, That where more than one signature is affixed to 
the same paper, one or more stamps maybe affixed thereto, 
representing the whole amount of the stamp required for such 
signatuies; and that the term money, as herein used, shall be 
held to include drafts and other instruments given for the pay- 
ment of money: Provided further. That the stamp duties im- 
posed by the foregoing Schedule B on manifests, bills of lading, 
and passage tickets, shall not apply to steamboats or vessels 
plyiDg between ports of the United States and ports in British 
North America: And provided further, That all affidavits shall 
be exempt from stamp duty. 



MEDICINES OR PREPARATIONS. 



For and upon every packet, box, bottle, pot, phial, or other in- 
closure, containing any patent pills, powders, tinctures, troches, 
lozenges, etc., etc., where such shall not exceed, at retail price 
or value, the sum of twenty-five cents 01 

Where such packet, etc., with its contents, shall exceed the retail 
price or value of twenty-five cents, and not exceed the retail 
priceor value of fifty cents 02 

Where such packet, etc,, shall exceed the retail price or value of 
fifty cents, and shall notexceed the retail price or value of sev- 
enty-five cents 03 

Where such packet, etc,, shall exceed the retail price or value of 
seventy- five cents, and shall not exceed the retail price or value 
of one dollar 04 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 45 

Where such packet, etc., shall exceed the retail price or value of 
one dollar, for each and every fifty cents or fractional part there- 
of over and above one dollar, as before mentioned, an addi- 
tional two cents 02 



PERFUMERY, COSMETICS, MATCHES AND CARDS. 

For and upon every packet, box, bottle, pot, phial, or other In- 
closure, containing any essence, extract, toilet water, cosmetic, 
etc., etc., used or applied as perfumes or application to the hair, 
mouth or skin, * * * * wbere such packet, etc,, shall 
not exceed, at the retail price or value, the sum of twenty-five 
cents 01 

Where such packet, etc., with its contents, shali exceed the retail 
price or value of twenty-five cents, and shall not exceed there- 
tail price or value of fiffy cents 02 

Where such packet, etc., with its contents, shall exceed the retail 
price or value of fifty cents, and shall not exceed the retail 
price or value of seventy-five cents 03 

Where such packet, etc., with its contents, shall exceed the 
retail price or value of seventy-five cents, and shall not ex- 
ceed the retail priceorvalue of one dollar 04 

Where such packet, etc., with its contents, shall exceed the retail 
priceorvalue of one dollar, for each and every fifty cents or 
fractional part thereof over and above the one dollar, as be- 
fore ment'onetl, an additional two cents 02 

Friction Matches, or lueifer matches, etc., in parcels or pack- 
ages containing one hundred matches or less, for each parcel 
or package 01 

When in parcels or packages containing more than one hundred 
and not more than two hundred matches, for each parcel or 
package 02 

And for every additional one hundred matches or fractional part 

thereof. 01 

For wax tapers, double the rates herein imposed upon friction or 
lueifer matches. 

Plating Cards.— For and upon every pack, not exceeding fifty- 
two cards in number, irrespective of price or value 05 

Canned Meats, Etc.— For and upon every can, bottle, or other 
single package, containing meats, shell-fish, fruits, vegetables, 
sauces, sirups, prepared mustard, jams or jellies contained 
therein, and packed or sealed, made, prepared and sold, or 
offered for sale, or removed for consumption in the United 
States, on and after the first day of October, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-six, when such can, bottle, or other single package, 
with its contents, shall not exceed two pounds in weight 01 

When such can, bottle, or other single package, with its contents, 
shall exceed two pounds in weight, for every additional pound 
or fractional part thereof 01 



TABLE OF DUTIES ON IMPORTED GOODS. 

(From the Act of July 13th, 1870.) 

The following Table of Duties on Imported Goods has been carefully 
compiled from the latest government authorities. It is slightly condensed ; 
no unnecessary repetitions have been permitted to stand. Thus the 
reader will not find both "Copal Gum" and "Gum Copal," but will find the 
article under the head of gums, and so forth. Few chemicals and drugs 
have been allowed to remain in the list, excepting only those used exten- 



46 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



sively in many branches of industry, and all those struck out are admitted 
duty free. The same remark applies to many although not all, other 
minor productions : 

Absinthe, per proof gallon $2 

Acid, arsenious, crude free. 

Acid, nitric, not chemically pure free. 

Acid, muriatic free. 

Acid, oxalic free . 

Alabaster, cast*, for libraries, etc., and not for sale free. 

Alabata, manufactures or articles of 45 per cent. 

Albumen free. 

Aluminuim, and its alloys, manufactures of 45 per cent. 

Alloy of nickel with copper, per ib 20 cents. 

Amber, gum free. 

Ammonia, crude free. 

Anatomy, preparations of, free. 

Aniline dyes and colors, by whatever name known 50 c. "® B>. 4 35^ c. 

Aniline oil, crude free. 

Animals, live 20 per cent. 

Animals for breeding purpores, from beyond the seas, on proof sat- 
isfactory to the Secretary of the Treasury free. 

Animals with harness and tackle owned by persons immigrating to 
the United States with their families, in actual use for the purpo- 
ses of such immigration free. 

Animals, brought into the United States, temporarily, for a period 

not exceeding months, for exhibition or competition for prizes . . free. 

Animal manures free. 

Animal oil. all, per gallon 20 per cent. 

Arabic, gum free . 

Argentine, manufactures or articles of 45 per cent. 

Arrack, per proof gallon $2. 

Arsenic free. 

Arsenious acid free. 

Art, works of, imported expressly for presentation to national insti- 
tutions, or to any state, or to any municipal corporation free. 

Art, works of, production of American artists free. 

Articles imported expressly for use of tho United States, provided 

tho price doeB not include the duty free. 

Articles, the growth, produce, and manufacture of the United 

States, when returned in the same condition as exported free. 

Bamboos, unmanufactured free. 

Bananas 10 per cent. 

Barks, Peruvian free. 

Barks, Lima free. 

Barks, Cinchona free. 

Barks, Croton free. 

Barks, all not otherwise provided for I free. 

Bells, broken, fit only to re-manufacture free. 

Bells, metal , broken, fit only to remanuf acture free. 

Bitters, containing spirits, not otherwise provided for, per gallon. . . $2. 

Bone-dust free. 

Bone-ash. for manufacture of phosphates and fertilizers free. 

Bones, crude, not manufactured free. 

Bones, ground and calcined free. 

Books, which have been printed or manufactured more than 20 years free. 

Brandy, per proof gallon $2. 

Brimstone, crude free. 

Bromine free. 

Bronze, casts of, for libraries, etc. , and not for sale free. 

Building stone, except marble $1 50 per ton. 

Burr stones, in blocks, rough or unmanufactured, and not bound up 

into mill-stones free. 

Buttons, made of silk, or of which silk is the component material of 

chief value, and containing no wool, worsted, or goat's hair 50 per cent. 

Caco 2 cents. 

Caraway seeds free. 

Caripys, containing acids, subject to same duty as if empty 35 per cent. 

Caraamom seeds free. 

Caruelian, unmanufactured free. 

Cassia buds, per lb 20 cents. 

Cassia, ground, per ib 20 cents. 

Cassia, per lb 10 cents. 

Cassia vera, per lb 10 cents. 

Castor free. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 47 

Castoreum free. 

Casts, for libraries, societies, etc., and not for sale f rco. 

Cat int. unmanufactured free. 

( 'halk, unmanufactured free. 

Champagne, andallothorsparkling v.ines; per dozen bottles contain- 
ing eacli not more than one (juart and moro than ono pint $6. 

Champagne, per dozen bottles containing not more than ono pint 

each, and more than one half pint $3. 

Champagne, per dozen bottles rach one half pint or less con'aining. . $1 50. 

Chimpagne, in bofles containing moro than onoquart, inadditionto 
$6 per dozen bottles, for each gallon in excess of one quart per bot- 

tlo $2. 

Chocolate, per ft 7 cents 

Cinnamon, per ft 20 cents. 

Civet, crude, in natural pods free. 

Cloves, per ft 5 cents. 

Clove steins, per ft 3 cents. 

Coal, anthracite free. 

Cocoa, per ft 2 cents. 

Cocoa shells, per ft 1 ctnt. 

Cocoa leaves, per ft 1 cent. 

Cocoa, ground or prepared, per ft 5 cents. 

Cocoa-nuts 10 per cent. 

Cocoa-nut oil free. 

Coffee, per ft 3 cents. 

Collections of antiquity, not for sale free. 

Cordials, per proof gallon $2. 

Cork taik. unmanufactured free. 

Cork wood, unmanufactured free. 

Corsets, etc., when valued at $6 per dozen or less, per dozen $2. 

Do., valued over $6 per dozen 35 per cent, 

Cotton bagging, or other manufactures, not otherwi«e provided for, 
suitablo fortho uses to which cotton bagging is applied, etc., val- 
ued at 7 cents or less persquaro yard, per ft 2 cents. 

Do., do., valued over 7 cents per square yard, per ft 3 cents. 

Cotton thread, yarn, warps, or warp yarn, valued at not exceeding 40 

centsperft 10c. $ ft. <fc 20$ ct. 

Do., do., valued at over 40 cent3 per ft. and not exceeding 60 cts. per ft 20 c. $ ft. £ 'J i ,'-. ct. 

Do., do., valued at over 60 cents per lb. and not exceeding 80cts. per ft 30 c. V, ft. & - Iw ct. 

Do , do., valued at over 80 cents per pound 40 c. $ ft, <fc 20$ ct. 

Currants, Zante, and other, per ft 2'i cents. 

Drawings for Societies, and not for sale free. 

Eggs free. 

Emery, ore, or rocks, not pulverized or ground free. 

Esparto, or Spanish grass, and other grasses and pulp of, for the man- 
ufacture of paper free. 

Elchincs, for societies, etc., and not for sale free. 

Eyelets of every description, per 1000 6 cents. 

Fashion plates, engraved on steel or on wood, colored, plain free. 

Fish, fresh, for immediate consumption free. 

Fish, fresh, for bait free. 

Fish oil. per gallon 20 per cent. 

Flaxseed, per bushel of 56 lb » 20 cents. 

Flaxseed oil. per gallon 30 cents. 

Flax straw, per ton $5. 

Flax, not hackled or dresied , per ton $20. 

Flax, hackled, known as dressed line, per ton... $-10 

Flax, tow of, per ton 

Flint. 

Freestone $150 per ton. 

Fur 6kins. all kinds, not dressed in anv manner free. 

German silver, manufacturers or articles of 45 per cent. 

Ginger root, per ft 2cents. 

Ginger, ground, per ft 5 cents. 

Glass, broken in pieces which can not be cut for use, and fit only for 

manufacture free. 

Granite $1 50 per ton. 

Grapes 20 per cent. 

Grasses, and pulp of. for the manufacture of paper free. 

Grindstone, rough or unfinished, per ton $1 50 . 

Do., finished, per ton $2. 

Guano free. 

Gums, Arabic, Jcddo, Senegal. Barbary. East India. Cape. Australian 
Bonzoine. copal, sandarac. damar. gamboge, cowrie, mastic, shellac, 
fragacanth. olebanum. guiac, myrrh, bdellium, and all galbanum, 

not otherwise provided for free. 



$-10 
•10. 
free. 



48 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Gun-Wads, sporting, all .\ 35 per cent 

Gutta percha, crude free. 

Hair-cloth, known as hair seating, 18 inches wide or over, per square 
yard 40 cents 3 sq. yard, 

Do., less than 18 inches wide, per sq. yard 30 cents. 

Do., do, known as crinoline cloth 38 per cent. 

Hair, manufactures of, not otherwise provided for. .. , 30 per cent. 

Hair-pins made of iron wire 50percent. 

Hemp, mani) a, and other like subatitues for hemp, unmanufactured, 
not herein otherwise provided for, per ton $25. 

Hemp, tow of, per ton $10. 

Hemp seed, per lb % cent. - 

Hide cuttings, raw and in the hair, for glue stocK free. 

Horns free, 

Horn tips free. 

Hoofs free. 

Horse hair, not cleaned and dressed, for weaving free. 

'Householas effects of persons and families returning or emigrating 
from foreign countries, which have been in actual use abrcad by 
them, and not intended for any other person or persons, or for sale, 
not exceeding the value of $500 free. 

India-rubber, crude, and milk of free. 

Instruments, for educational, scientific, or literary purposes and not 
for sale free. 

Iodine, crude f rea. 

Iron, in pigs, per ton $7. 

Iron, cast, scrap, of every description, r>er ton $(!. 

Do., wrought scrap iron of every description, per ton $». 

Iron— Nothing shall be deemed scrap iron except waste or refuse iron 
that has been in actual use, and fit only to be remanufactured, 

Iron, round, in coils, 3-16 of an inch or less in diameter, whether coat- 
ed with metal or not so coated, and iron ware, and wire of which 
iron is a component part, not otherwise specifically enumerated and 
provided for, shall pay the same duty as iron wire, bright, coppered, 
or tinned. 

Ivory, unmanufactured , free. 

Jet, unmanufactured free. 

Juniper berries free. 

Jute, per ton $15. 

Jute buts, per ton $6. 

Lac, crude, seed, button, stick, shell or dye free. 

Lava, unmanufactured .• f ree . 

Lemons 20 per cent. 

Lemon-peel, not preserved, candied, or otherwise prepared free. 

Life-boats, imported by life-saving societies free. 

Life-saving apparatus, imported by life-saving societies free. 

Limes 10 per cent. 

Linseed, per bushel of 56 lb 20 cents. 

Linseed oil, per gallon 30 cents. 

Liqueurs, per proof gallon S2. 

Logs, round timber free. 

Machinery, for steam plows, for use of personimporting, for two years, free. 

Machinery and apparatus designed only for and apapted to be used for 
steam towage on canals, and not now manufactured in the United 
States, may be imported by any state or person duly authorized by 
the Legislature of any state, for two years free. 

Madder roots, ground free - 

Mangoes 10 per cent. 

Manila. See "Hemp." 

1 30 per cent., and 25 
I cents per superfi- 

Marble, sawed, dressed, or polished, marble slabs, and marble paving \ cial sq. foot not 

tile f exceeding 2 inch- 

1. se in thickness. 

Manna free. 

Marble, casts of, etc., etc., and not for sale free. 

Melada, or concentrated melada, peril) V/ z cents. 

Metals, mixed, similar to German silver, manufactures 45 per cent 

Molasses, per gallon 5 cents. 

Molasses, all syrup of sugar, syrup of sugar-cane juice, melada, con- 
centrated melada, or concentrated molasses, entered under name 
of molasses, shall be forfeited. 
Molasses, concentrated, per lb \% cents. 

Monumental stone, except marble $1 50 per ton 

Morphia, and all salts of, per oz $1. 

Moss, Iceland and other, crude free. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 49 

Muriatic acid free. 

Ncat's-foot oil, per gallon 20 per cent. 

Nickel, per lb 30 cents. 

Nickel, alloy of. with copper, per B) 20 cents. 

Nickel, oxide, per lb 20 cents. 

Nickel, manufactures or articles of •).". per ocnt 

Nitric acid free. 

Nutmegs, per 9> 20 cents. 

Nuts for dyeing, or used for composing dyes, not otherwise provided 

for free. 

Oak bark free. 

Oil seeds, except linseed and flaxseed, per tt> )i cent. 

Oilcake, made from imported seed, no drawback on. 



Oils, sesame seed, per gallon 30 cents. 

Oils, conne, per gallon 30 cents. 

Oils, cotton seed, per gallon 3;) cents. 



Oils, palm free. 

Oils, cocoa-nut free. 

Oils, ncat's-foot. per gallon 20 per cent. 

Oils, animal, per gallon 20 percent. 

Oils, whale, per gallon 20 per cent. 

Oils, seal, per gallon 20 per cent. 

Oils, tish, per gallon 20 percent. 

Oils, linseed, per gallon 30 cents. 

Oils, flaxseed, per gallon 30 cents. 

Opium, per B) . . $1. 

Opium, prepared for smoking, and other preparations of, not other- 
wise provided for, per lb $6. 

Oranges 20 per cent. 

Ore of antimony or crude sulphuret of free. 

Ornament s. for dresses and outside garments, made of silk, or of which 
silk is the component material of chief value, and containing no 

wool, worsted, or goat's hair 50 per cent. 

Paintings, for libraries societies, etc., and not for sale free. 

Paintings, productions of American artists free 

Paintings imported expressly for presentation to national institutions 

or to any state, or to any municipal corporation free. 

Paper waste free. 

Pepper, black, per lb 5 cents. 

Pepper, white, per lb 5 cents. 

Pepper, red or Cayenne, per lb 5 cents. 

Pepper, all kinds, ground, per lb 10 cents. 

Peruvian bark free 

Phi'osophical apparatus for libraries, etc., not for sale free. 

Phosphates, crude or native, for fertilizing purposes . free. 

Pimento, per Br S cents. 

Do., ground 10 cents. 

Pine-apples 20 per cent. 

Plants, imported by Department of Agriculture or the United States 

Botanic Garden free. 

Plantains 10 per cent. 

Plaster of Paris casts, for libraries, etc., and not for sale free. 

Platinum vases, or parts, for chemical uses t free. 

Platinum retorts, or parts thoreof, forchemical uses free. 

Plums, per lb 2'j cents. 

Poplar or other woods for the manufacture of paper free. 

Preparations for scientific purpsses, etc.. and not for sale free. 

Prunes, per lb Sfi cent*. 

Rags, of cotton — free. 

Rags, of line^. free. 

Rags, of iute free. 

Rags, of hemp free. 

Railway bars, s>-e "Steel.'' 

Rapeseed, per lb '■£ cent . 

Ratafia, per gallon $'2. 

Resins, crude, not otherwise provided for free. 

Roots, imported by Department of Agriculture, or the United States 

Botanic Garden free. 

Sandstone $1 SO per-ton 

Sarsaparilla, crude free. 

Scientific apparatus, imported for libraries, etc., and not for sale free. 

Sea- weed, not otherwise provided for free. 

Seed, caraway free. 

Seeds, imported for Department of Agriculture, or the United States 

Botanic Garden free. 

Sesame seed 10 per cent. 



50 ALTA CALIFOBNIA ALMANAC. 



Sesame seed oil, per gallon 30 cents. 

Shaddocks 10 per cent. 

Shellfish free. 

Shells, not manufactured free. 

Shrubs, imported by Department of Agriculture, or the United States 
Botanic Garden free . 

Shrimps free. 

S i I i i te of soda, or other alkaline silicates, per lb % cent. 

SMtworm eggs free. 

Sirup of sugar-cane juice, per ft V/k cents. 

Sisal grass, per ton $15. 

Skeletons free. 

Spices, all not specified, per ft 20 cents. 

Do., ground or prepared 30 cents. 

Sparkling wines, see Champagne 

Specimens of natural history, botany, and mineralogy, imported for 
cabinets as objects of taste and science, and not for sale free. 

Spirits, manufactured or distilled from grain or other materials, and 
not otherwise provided for, per proof gallon $2. 

Spirits, similar to arrack, etc.. per gallon $2. 

Statuary, fountains, etc., imported expressly for presentation to na- 
tional institutions, or to any state, or to any municipal corporation free. 

Statuary, fountains, etc., production ef American artists free. 

Statuary, fountains, etc., for societies, libraries, etc., and not for sale free. 

Steel, commercially known as crinoline, corset, and hat steel wire, 
per lb 9cts. & 10 per ct. 

Steel railway bars, per lb 1M cents. 

Steel railway bars made in part of steel, per ft) lcent. 

Steel, metal converted, cast or made from iron by the Bessemer or 
pneumatic process, of whatever form or description, shall be classed 
as steel. 

Sugar, all raw or muscovado, not above No. 7, Dutch standard in color, 
per lb \% ^ents. 

Do. , above No. 7 and on all other sugar not above No. 10, per ft 2 cents . 

Do., above No. 10 and not above No. 13, per ft 2J€ cents. 

Do., above No. 13 and not above No, 16, per ft 2M cents. 

Do., above No. 16 and not above No. 20, per ft 3M cents. 

Do., above No. 20, per lb 4 cents. 

Do., sirup of sugar-cane, per lb V/i cents. 

Do., refined loaf, per lb 4 cents. 

Do., do., lump, per ft 4 cents. 

Do., do., crushed, per ft 4 cents. 

Do., do., powdered, per ft 4 cents. 

Do., do., granulated, per ft 4 cents. 

Sweepings of silver or gold free. 

Sword-blades Srper cent. 

Swords 45 per cent. 

Tank bottom, per ft VA cents 

Tapioca free. 

Tea plants free. 

Teas, per lb 15 cents. 

Timber, round, unmanufactured, not otherwise provided for free. 

Timber, ship free. 

Trees, imported by the Department of Agriculture, or the United 
States Botanic Gardens free. 

Turtles free. 

Ultramarine, per lb 6 cents. 

'Vegetable ivory, unmanufactured free. 

Vegetables for dyeing, or used for composing dyes, not otherwise pro- 
vided for fre$. 

Verdigris free. 

Vermouth, per gallon $2. 

W aste bagging, for paper-making t free. 

Wa?te rope, for paper-making '. free. 

Watch cases 25 per cent. 

Watch material s 25 per cent . 

Watch movements 25 per cent. 

Watches 25 per cent. 

Watches, parts of 25 per cent. 

AVatch jewels. 10 per cent. 

Whip gut, unmanufactured free. 

Whale oil, foreign 20 per cent. 

White metal, manufactures or articles of 45 per cent. 

Wines, imported in casks containing not more than 22 per cent, of al- 
cohol, and valued at not exceeding 40 cents per gallon, per gallon. ... 25 cents. 

Do., valued at over 40 cents and not over $1 per gallon, per gallon 60 cents. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 51 



Wines -valued at over $1 per gallon, per gallon $1, and 25 V ct. 

Do., imported in bottles, not otherwise provided for, same rate per 
gallon as wines imported in casks; and all bottles containing one 
quart or less than one quart, and moro than one pint, shall bo held 
to contain one quart, and bottles containing one pint or less shall be 
held to contain one pint, and shall pay, in addition, 3 cts. for each 
bottle. 

Wood, ashes and lye of free. 

Woods, poplar and other, for tho manufacture of paper free. 

Wool on the skin is to pay the duty imposed on wool, which is as fol- 
lows: 

Wool, class first, clothing wools, viz: merino, mestiza, metz or metis 
wool, etc., and all not otherwise provided for in class 2 and 3, the 
value whereof at the last port whence exported to the United States, 
excluding charges in such port, shall be 32 cents or less per lb., per 
lb 10 cts. Allfct. 

Wool, as above, exceeding 32 cents per lb 12f) ct. <fc 10$ ct. 

Wool, second class, combing wools, viz: Leicester, Cotswold, Lincoln- 
shire, down combing wools, Canada long wools, etc., the value where- 
of at the last port whence exported to the United States, excluding 
charges in such port, shall be 32 cents per lb. or less 10c. $ lb A 11 19c. 

Do., do., as above, exceeding 12 cents per lb 12c. & lb &. 1C ^ie. 

Wool, third class, carpet wools and other similar wools, the value 
thereof at the last port whence exported to the United States, ex- 
cluding charges in snch port, shall be 12 cents or less per lb 3 cents per !b. 

Wool, exceeding 32 cents per lb (i cents per lb. 

Wool, on the skin. Any wool of the sheep or hair of the Alapaca goat 
and other like animals, which shall be imported in any other than 
the ordinary condition, as now and heretofore practiced, or which 
6hall be changed in its character or condition for the purpose of 
evading the duty : or which shall be reduced in value by tho admix- 
ture of dirt or any foreign substance, shall be subject to pay twice the 
amount of duty to which it would bo otherwise subjectod. 

WooLon the skin. When wool of the first class is imported washed, the 
duty shall be twice the amount of duty to which it would be subjected 
if imported unwashed, and the duty on wool of all classes which shall 
be imported scoured, shall be three times the amount of duty to which 
it would be subjected if imported unwashed. 

Worksofart, See "Paintings." 



TABLE OF INTERNAL REVENUE TAXES. 

Ale.perbbl. of 31 gallons $1 00 

Banks, on average amount of deposi ts, each month 1-24 of 1 ^ et. 

Banks, on capital, beyond the average amount invested in United States 

bonds, each month 1-24 of 1 ^ ct. 

Banks, on average amount of circulation, each month 1-12 of 1 $ ct. 

Banks, on average amount of circulation, beyond 90 per cent, of the capi- 
tal, an additional tax each month 1-6 of 1 $ ct. 

Banks not making dividends to pay on undivided profits for and during the 

year 1871 24: per cent. 

Banks, on amount of notes of any person, state bank, or state banking asso- 
ciation, used and paid out as circulation 10 percent. 

Bankers. See "Banks" and Brokers." 

Beer, per bbl. of 31 gallons $1 00 

Brandy, made from grapes, per gallon 50 

Brewers, special tax on 100 00 

Brokers, on sales and contracts for the sale of stocks, bonds, gold and silver bul- 
lion and coin, promissory notes, or other securities, for each $100 of the 

amount of such sales or contracts 01 

Chewing tobacco, fine cut, plug, or twist, per lb 32 

Cigars, manufacturers of, whose annual sales do not exceed $5000, special tax. . . . 10 00 

Cigars, manufacturers of, for each $1000 in excess of $5000 2 00 

Cigars, of all descriptions, made of tobacco or any substitute therefor, per 1000 5 00 

Cigars, imported, in addition to import duty to pay same as above. 

Cigarrettes not weighing more than 3 lb. per 1000, per 1000 1 50 



52 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Cigarettes weighing exceeding 3 lb. per 1000, per 1000 5 00 

Dealers in liquors. See " "Wholesale dealers in liquors." 

Distilled spirits, every proof gallon SO 

Distillers producing lOObbls. or less (40 gallons of proof spirit to bbl.) per annum 400 00 

Distillers, for each bbl. in excess of 100 bbls 4 00 

Distillers, on each bbl. of 40 gallons in warehouse when act took effect, and when 

withdrawn 4 00 

Distillers of brandy from grapes, peaches, and apples exclusively, producing less 

than 150 bbls. annually, special tax $50, and $4 per bbl. of 40 gallons. 
Distillery, having aggregate capacity for mashing, etc., 20 bushels of grain per day, 

or less, per day 2 00 

Distillery in excess of 20 bushels of grain per day, for every 20 bushels, per day . . 2 00 

Dividends, for and during the year 1871 IVz f» ct. 

Fermented liquors, in general, per bbl 1 00 

Gas, coal, illuminating, when the product shall not be above 200,000 cubic feet per 

month, per 1000 cubic feet 10 

Gas, coal, when product exceeds 200,000 and does not exceed 500,000 cubic feet per 

month, per 1000 cubic feet 15 

Gas, coal, when product exceeds 500,000 and does not exceed 5,000,000 cubic feet per 

month, per 1000 cubic feet 20 

Gas, coal, when product exceeds 5,000,000 feet per month, per 1000 cubic feet .' 25 

Imitation wines and champagne, not made from grapes, currants, rhubarb, or 
berries, grown in the United States, rectified or mixed, to be sold as wine or 
any other name, per dozen bottles of more than a pint and not more than a 

quart 6 00 

Imitation wines, containing not more than one pint, per dozen bottles 3 00 

Income, for the years 1870 and 1871 (exemption $2000) 2>£ $ ct. 

Lager Beer, per bbl. of 31 gallons 1 00 

Liquors, dealers in, whose sales, including sales of all other merchandise, shall 
exceed $25,000, an additional tax for every $100 on sales of liquors in excess of 

such $25,000 1 00 

Manufacturers of stills 50 00 

Manufacturers of stills, for each still or worm made 20 00 

Porter, per bbl. of 31 gallons 1 00 

Rectifiers, rectifying 200 bbls. or less, of 40 gallons to bbl. per year 200 00 

Rectifiers, for each bbl . in excess 50 

Retail Liquor Dealers, special tax 25 00 

Snuff, manufactured of tobacco or any substitute, when prepared for use, per ft 32 
Special taxes (licenses) except as named in this table, repealed to take effect 
May 1, 1870. 

Stamps, distillers, other than tax-paid stamps charged to collector, each 25 

Tobacco, dealers in leaf tobacco whose annual sales do not exceed $10,000 25 00 

Tobacco, dealers in, on every $1000 in excess 2 00 

Tobacco, dealers in, whose -annual sales exeed $100 and do not exceed $1000 5 00 

Tobacco, dealers in, when exceeding $1000, for each $1000 in addition 2 00 

Tobacco, manufacturers of 10 00 

Tobacco, manufacturers of, when the bond required exceeds $5000, for each $1000 

in excess of $50U0. 2 00 

Tobacco, twisted by hand, or reduced from leaf, to be consumed, without the 

use of machine or instrument, and not pressed or sweetened, per ft 32 

Tobacco, all other kinds not provided for, per ft 32 

Tobacco, smoking, exclusively of stems or of leaf, not having been previously 

stripped, etc., and from which the stems have not been separated, etc., per ft 16 
Tobacco, fine cut shorts, the refuse of fine-cut chewing, etc., and on refuse 

scraps and sweepings, per lb 16 

"Wholesale liquor dealers 100 00 

Wholeseal dealers in liquors whose sales, including sales of all other merchan- 
dise, shall exceed $25,000, each to pay an additional tax on every $100 of sales of 
liquors in excess of $25,000 1 00 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



59 



JLOCATION OF CITY POST OFFICE BOXES. 

TIME Or REMOVING LETTERS DEPOSITED THEREIN. 





Week Days 


Sundays. 


FIRST DISTRICT. 

California and Front 00 A. m. 


P.M. 

2 40 
2 45 

2 50 
2 53 

2 55 

3 10 


P. M. 

30 

35 
G 40 
6 45 

6 50 

7 00 

2 00 
2 02 
2 04 
2 08 
2 09 
2 13 
2 17 
2 21 
2 25 

2;i5 

2 40 
2 42 
2 45 
2 4-5 
2 48 
2 50 
2 51 
2 45 

2 58 

3 00 

1 00 
105 
1 10 
1 15 
1 25 
1 30 
1 35 
1 40 
1 50 

1 55 

2 05 
2 10 
2 15 
2 25 
2 36 

a -jo 

2 45 

a bo 

2 .55 


A.M. 


P. M. 




6 35 






40 


Clay and Davis 6 OS a. m. 

Pacific and Davis 6 10 A. m. 

SIXTH DISTRICT. 

Merchants' Exchange 11 45 A. m. 

FIFTEENTH DISTRICT. 




6 45 






7 00 


650 
6 00 








6 02 








6 04 








C 06 








6 09 








6 13 








6 17 








6 21 








6 25 








6 30 








6 35 








6 37 








6 40 








6 42 








6 44 








6 45 








6 47 








6 50 








6 52 








6 55 


SEVENTEENTH DISTRICT. 






500 








5 05 








5 10 








5 15 








5 25 








5 30 








5 35 






5 40 






5 50 






5 55 






6 05 






6 10 






6 15 






8fi 






e as 






6 40 


tj .?.j « n ,i ri«i 




6 45 






650 


Mission and Steuart ' 




655 



An Irish girl having been sent to the post-office for the mail, came back 
to inquire whether it was Indian mail or corn mail that was wanted. 

A Buffalo serenader sang" I'm thinking love, of thee," when the dee- 
cent of about four gallons of water from a third-story window proved her 
papa was thinking of him. 

The draughtsman's paradise— Pencil-vania. 



54 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



LODE AND PLACER CLAIMS. 

We give below the instructions issued by Commissioner Wilson of 
the Land Office on the subject of the survey and entry of lode and 
placer claims. After stating the provisions of the Act of the last Con- 
gress on this subject, the Commissioner says : 

Circular 
In relation to the survey and entry of mining claims under the pro- 
visions of the Act of Congress, approved July 2G, 1866, " granting 
the right of way to ditch and canal owners over the public lands 
and for other purposes ;" and the act amendatory thereof, approved 
July 9, 1870. 

Department op the Interior, ) 
General Land Office, Aug. 8th, 1870. [ 

Gentlemen: The original mining act of July 26, 1866, U. S. Statutes, 
vol. 14, p. 251, having been amended in adding to its provisions addi- 
tional sections twelve to seventeen, inclusive, by the act of Congress, 
approved July 9, 1870, it becomes my duty to prescribe for your infor- 
mation and observance the following regulations, to wit : 

1st. By the 12th section of the amendatory aet, placer claims, in- 
cluding all forms of deposit, except veins of quartz or other rock in 
place, are made subject to entry and patent under similar circumstances, 
conditions, and like proceedings as contemplated in the original act for 
vein or lode claims. 

Placer claims on surveyed lands, are authorized to be entered by le- 
gal subdivisi©ns, no special survey or plat in such case being required, 
at the rate of two dollars and fifty cents per acre. In regard to placer 
claims, however, the amendatory law restricts their extent in sespeet 
to locations made after the date of its passage, to not exceeding one 
hundred and sixty acres for any one person, or association of persons ;: 
such location being required to conform to the Government surveys,. 
and not to interfere with any bona fide pre-emption or homestead claims 
upon agricultural lands. 

2d. The act further provides for the subdivision of forty-acre legal 
subdivisions into ten-acre tracts, and authorizes two or more persons, 
or association of persons, having contiguous elaimsof any size, although 
less than ten acres each, to make joint entry of such minor subdivis- 
ions, all bona fide pre-emption or homestead claims upon agricultural 
lands being protected by law. The Surveyors General are therefore 
hereby authorized to have such subdivisions into ten-acre traets made 
by their Deputies when applied for by claimants, numbering each ten- 
acre tract with consecutive numbers of claims in the township, as in 
the case of other mineral surveys, and if the service is performed by 
county and local surveyors, as authorized by the 16th section of tke 
amendatory act, it will be the duty of the Surveyor General to verify 
the surveys so executed, and if found correctly done, to adopt the same 
and certify the fact, appending his approval as in cases where surveys 
are made under his own direction. The expense of sueh subdividing is 
required to be defrayed by the mining claimants. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 55 



3d. In the thirteenth section it is declared that in the absence of 
any adverse claim where said person or association, they and their 
grantors shall have held and worked their said claims for a period equal 
to the time prescribed by the statute of limitations for mining claims 
of the State or Territory where the same may be situated, evidence of 
such possession and working of the claims for such period shall be 
sufficient to establish a right to a patent thereto, subject to any lien 
which may have attached to such claim prior to the issue of said 
patent. 

The foregoing provision is construed to apply as well to lode as to 
placer claims, aud should lessen the amount of proof usually required 
to establish a right to a patent. 

4th. In the fourteenth section it is provided that all ex parte affida- 
vits required under the original and amendatory Acts may be verified 
before any officer authorized to administer oaths within the land dis- 
tinct in which the claims are situated. 

5th. By the fifteenth section it is declared that Registers and Re- 
ceivers are entitled to the same fees for services in mining cases, as are 
provided by law for like services under other Acts of Congress, the 
rates of allowance being specifically given in our circular dated July 
25, 1870. 

6th. By the sixteenth section the interdict placed by the Act of 
March 3, 1853, " that none other than township lines shall be sur- 
veyed where the lands are mineral," is repealed ; this provision of law 
being referable to surveys in California only; the extension of the lines 
of future surveys over the lands mentioned in this section applies ex- 
clusively to that State. The requirement, however, in the last proviso 
of the same section " that nothing herein contained shall require the 
survey of waste or useless lands," is a principle of general application, 
and Surveyors General will refrain from extending the lines of public 
surveys over such waste lands which are considered to be those cov- 
ered by alkali to a depth calculated to prevent the growing of crops, 
moving sand, or other sandy plains of great extent, and abrupt or 
snowy mountains not known to contain mineral deposits. 

7th. Section seventeen authorizes the extension of the rights conferred 
by sections 5, 8, and 9 of the original Mining Act, to all public lands 
affected by this law, and subjects all patents granted or pre-emptions 
or homesteads allowed, to any vested or accrued water rights, or rights 
to ditches and reservoirs used in connection with such water rights as 
may have been acquired under, or recognized, by the said ninth sec- 
tion, said section declaring further that nothing in the act shall be 
construed to repeal, or in any way affect, the act granting the right of 
way and other privileges to aid in the construction of a draining and 
exploring tunnel to the Comstock lode in the State of Nevada, ap- 
proved July 25, 1866. U. S. Statutes, volume 14, p. 242. 

8th. The per diem allowance to Deputy Surveyors, including all 
expenses of assistants, for surveys of mineral claims, as stipulated in 
our circular letter of January 14th, 1867, has been in several cases 
found quite inadequate, and that, consequently, parties in order to in- 



56' ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



dtice deputies to make the surveys have found it necessary to pay 
additional sums as on private account. To avoid such results the Sur- 
veyors General are hereby authorized to increase the maximum per 
diem allowance according to the difficulty of the service, taking care, 
however, to have the work performed on the most economical scale by 
skillful and responsible surveyors, and in no case to exceed a maximum 
of $20 per day. 

In each case where an allowance is made of over $10 per day, the 
reasons showing the necessity for doing so must be stated in the con- 
tract and then reported to this office, and it must be understood that 
no extra compensation, under any circumstances whatever, is to be 
exacted or received by the deputy under penalty of forfeiting the con- 
tract, and exclusion from the public surveying service. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO OBTAINING PATENTS FOR MIN- 
ING CLAIMS. 

With reference to the proceedings necessary to obtain patents for 
lode or placer claims under the provisions of the Acts of Congress 
above mentioned, the following is communicated : 

9. The mining enactments limit the right to apply for and receive 
patents for mining claims to claimants — 

First. Who have occupied and improved their claims according to 
the local customs or rules of miners, or — 

Second. Who have, by themselves or their grantors, held and work- 
ed their claims for a period equal to the time prescribed by the Statute 
of Limitations for mining claims of the State or Territory where the 
same may be situated. 

Third. Who have expended in actual laboi and improvements upon 
their respective claims an amount of not less than one thousand dol- 
lars, and — 

Fourth. In regard to whose possession there is no controversy or 
opposing claim. 

Unless, therefore, applicants for mining patents are properly within 
these requirements, they are not in a condition to avail themselves of 
the privileges extended by the laws referred to. 

THE APPLICATION. 

10th. This must be in writing and must be filed in the office of the 
Register and Eeceiver of the Land District in which the claim lies. 
It must distinctly state the name of the applicant, and whether the 
claim is applied for by an individual, an association, or an incorpora- 
tion ; the name and extent of the claim ; the character of the ore ; the 
mining district, county and State ; the date of its original location ac- 
cording to the mining customs ; where the same was recorded ; wheth- 
er the applicant claims as a locator or purchaser ; give a description 
of the premises claimed, and the nature of the improvements made or 
labor performed ; and finally the application should state that the claim- 
ant has posted a "Diagram" of the claim in a conspicuous place there- 
on, together with a notice of his intention to apply for a patent, giving 
the date of such posting. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 57 



11th. With the above application the claimant must file a copy of 
the "Diagram" posted on the claim, which diagram must represent 
the boundaries of the premises, as fixed by the local laws, customs or 
rules of miners ; and when the claim lies upon surveyed land, it must 
also show its relation to the public surveys. 

12th. Diagrams of placer claims upon surveyed lands must rep- 
resent the subdivision of the public lands which the claimant desires 
to enter, as the Act requires such entries, in their exterior limits, to 
conform to such legal subdivisions. 

13th. With said diagram must be filed a copy of the " Notice" pos- 
ted upon the claim. 

This should state the name of the claimant, describe the claim, give 
the names of adjoining claims, or if none adjoin, the names of the near- 
est claims ; state whether it is a placer or rock claim ; if the former, 
the approximate area, if the latter, the estimated extent of surface 
ground, and the number of feet claimed on the course of the vein, dis- 
tinctly stating the name of the lode and the character of the vein ex- 
posed ; the mining district, county and State in which it lies ; whether 
upon surveyed or unsurveyed lands ; if the former, in what section, 
township and range ; if the latter, the location of the claim relatively 
to some well known natural object or landmark in the vicinity ; and 
finally the notice should state that it is the intention of the claimants 
to apply for a patent for the premises therein designated and upon 
which it is posted. 

14th. There should also be filed with the application satisfactory 
evidence that the applicant has the possessory right to the claim agree- 
ably to the local laws or customs of miners. This should consist of a 
certified copy of the laws or customs of the -miners of the district in 
force at the date of the location of the claim, and of a certificate under 
seal, of the County or Mining Recorder, giving a copy of the record of 
the original location of the claim, with name or names of the locators, 
and if the applicant claims as a purchaser, an abstract of title should 
be filed, tracing the right of possession from the original locators to 
the applicant for patent. Where applicants furnish satisfactory evi- 
dence that they and their grantors have held their claims for a period 
equal to the time prescribed by the statute of limitations of mining 
claims of the State or Territory where the same may be situated, such 
evidence being sufficient to establish a right to a patent for a claim so 
held and worked, upon compliance with the other provisions of the 
law and instructions, the proofs enumerated under this subdivision, (14) 
of the instructions are not required. 

15th. Proof of citizenship is required. Where the applicant is a 
corporation, a copy of their charter or certificate of incorporation may 
be filed in lieu of evidence of citizenship. In case, however, the appli- 
cant is an individual or an association of persons unincorporated ; affi- 
davits of citizenship or of having filed declarations of intention to be- 
come citizens should be filed. 

16th. Upon filing these papers, the Register and Receiver will give 
the same careful examination, and if found to be regular the Register 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



will order the publication of the "Notice" for ninety (90) days in a news- 
paper published nearest the location of the claim, but before ordering 
such publication, the Register will, in future, require the claimant to 
enter into an agreement with the publisher, to the effect that no claim 
or demand shall be made against the United States for the payment 
of such publication, and the Register will decline to order the publica- 
tion until such written agreement shall have been filed in his office. 
The cost of the publication of notice will therefore not be estimated by 
the Surveyor General in future cases. 

17th. The Register will also post copies of said "Notice" and "Dia- 
gram" in his office for ninety (90) days, and upon forwarding the case 
to this office will certify that they were posted. 

18th. On the expiration of the ninety days, the claimant or his duly 
authorized agent, must file with the Register his own affidavit support- 
ed by that of at least one other person cognizant of the fact, that said 
"Notice" and "Diagram" were posted in a conspicuous place upon the 
claim for the period of ninety consecutive days, giving the date of the 
same. The affidavit of the publisher must also be filed to the effect 
that the "Notice," a printed copy of which should be attached, was pub- 
lished in his newspaper for ninety days, giving the dates on which such 
publication commenced and ended, and that lie has received payment 
in full for the same. 

19th. These affidavits may be taken before the Register and Re- 
ceiver, or any officer authorized to administer oaths within their dis- 
trict, but if taken before a magistrate without an official seal, his offi- 
cial character must be authenticated under seal by the County Clerk 
in the usual manner. 

20th. If all the proof furnished is satisfactory to the Register and 
Receiver, and no adverse claim has been filed, those officers will, at 
the end of the ninety days, so inform the applicant for patent and the 
Surveyor General, which last named officer will make an estimate of 
the expense of surveying and platting the claim, except in the case of 
placer claims on surveyed land, where no further survey is required, 
and when the claimant shall have deposited the amount so estimated 
with any Assistant United States Treasurer or designated depository, 
in favor of the United States Treasurer, to be passed to the credit of 
the fund created by "individual depositors for surveys of the public 
lands," and shall have filed with the Surveyor General one of the dup- 
licate certificates of deposit, that officer will order the claim to be sur- 
veyed and platted in accordance with the regulations of this office 
governing mineral surveys, except in cases where the claimant has 
had a preliminary survey made by the United States Deputy Survey- 
or, for the purpose of perfecting the diagram and notice posted on the 
claim, in which case such preliminary survey may be platted and adopt- 
ed by the Surveyor General for the final survey. Copies of plat and 
field notes of survey are to be sent to the Register and Receiver and 
to the General Land Office, the latter accompanied by the certificate 
of deposit. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



21st. The Register and Receiver will examine the returns of the 
6urvey, and, if found satisfactory, will allow the entry to be completed 
at the rate of five dollars per acre, or fractional part of an acre, for lode 
claims, or two dollars and fifty cents per acre, or fractional part of an 
acre, for placer claims, and transmit all the papers on their files bear- 
ing upon the case to the General Land Office, together with their joint 
opinion thereon, so that a patent may he issued if all is found regular. 

22nd. In regard to placer claims on surveyed land, where the claim- 
ant applies to enter one hundred and sixty acres in legal subdivisions, 
no survey and plat of the claim are required; the entry in that case 
being allowed to be completed at the local land office as soon as satis- 
factory proof has been made after the expiration of ninety days notice 
and publication, provided no adverse claimant has appeared in the mean- 
time. 

23rd. Where the claimant of a Placer mine desires the subdivision 
of a quarter section, the service may be performed by county and local 
surveyors at the expense of the claimant, as required by law. 

ADVERSE CLAIMANTS. 

24th. The 6th section of the mining Act of July 26th, 1866, pro- 
vides that "whenever any adverse claimants to any mine, located and 
claimed as aforesaid, shall appear before the approval of the survey as 
provided in the third section of this Act, all proceedings shall be stayed 
until a final settlement and adjudication, in the Courts of competent 
jurisdiction, of the rights of possession to such claim, when a patent 
may issue as in other cases." 

An opposing claimant must file his adverse notice with the Register 
and Receiver, and in order that it may appear to those officers whether 
or not the adverse claim is such a one as is contemplated by the said 
6th section they will require the opposing claimant to present his affi- 
davit, setting out in detail the nature of his adverse claim, stating when 
and how it originated, whether by purchase or by location, the name3 
of all the original locators, with a certified copy of the original loca- 
tien from the Mining Recorder's office, and if he claims as a purchaser, 
an abstract of title certified by the said Recorder, tracing the title to 
the possession from the original locators to the claimant, should be 
furnished. 

Such affidavit and accompanying papers will be carefully examined 
by the Register and Receiver, and if in their judgment, an adverse claim 
is made out they will suspend all further action on the application for 
patent until an adjustment is had in the local Court ; if they find other- 
wise they will refuse to suspend, but in either event the papers filed 
both by the applicant for patent, and the adverse claimant, will be re- 
ferred to this office for review, when the decision of the Register and 
Receiver will either be affirmed or set aside, and all parties in interest 
notified of the result. 

25th. In the case of Placer claims upon surveyed lands where no 
survey is required, the adverse claimant should appear before the en- 
try is made, but if from any cause such adverse claimant should be 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



unable to appear within the time specified, and should appear before 
the patent is issued, the Register will nevertheless take his sworn 
statement, and transmit it to the General Land office for such action 
as the Commissioner may deem proper. 

26th. When the parties are notified that an adverse claim is made 
out it then becomes the duty of the adverse claimant immediately to 
commence action in Court, asd to prosecute the same to final j udgment 
or decree, by which the further proceedings of this office will be gov- 
erned ; yet in default of such suit being instituted within a reasonable 
time, the original claim will be dealt with as if no adverse interest had 
been* asserted. 

You will afford every facility to parties desiring to avail themselves 
of the privileges accorded by these enactments, and when cases are 
completed promptly report them to this office. 

Monthly returns must be made of all entries of lode and placer 
claims, with details specifically showing what lands have been so en- 
tered. 

Copies of both the mining Acts, of July 26th, 1866, and July 9th, 
1870, are hereto appended. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 

Jos. S. Welson, Commissioner. 

To United States Registers and Receivers and Surveyors General. 

Department of the Interior, August 9 th, 1870. 
Approved. 

J. D. Cox, Secretary. 



LAW RELATING TO PLACER CLAIMS. 

An Act to amend " An Act granting the right of way to Ditch and 

Canal owners over the public lands, and for other purposes." 
********** 
Section. 12. And be it further enacted, That claims, usually called 
"placers," including all form of deposit, excepting veins of quartz, or 
other rock in place, shall be subject to entry and patent under this 
Act, under like circumstances and conditions, and upon similar pro- 
ceedings, as are provided for vein or lode claims : Provided, That where 
the lands have been previously surveyed by the United States, the en- 
try in its exterior limits shall conform to the legal subdivisions of the 
public lands, no further survey or plat in such case being required, 
and the lands may be paid for at the rate of two dollars and fifty cents 
per acre: Provided further, That legal subdivisions of forty acres 
may be subdivided into ten-acre tracts, and that two or more persons, 
or associations of persons, having contiguous claims of any size, al- 
though such claims may be less than ten acres each, may make joint 
entry thereof: And provided further, That no location of a placer claim, 
hereafter made, shall exceed one hundred and sixty acres for any per- 
son or association of persons, which location shall conform to the Uni- 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 61 



ted States surveys ; and nothing in this section contained shall defeat 
or impair any bona fide pre-emption or homestead claim upon agricul- 
tural lands, or authorize the sale of the improvements of any bona fide 
settler to any purchaser. 

Sec. 13. And he it further enacted. That where said person or asso- 
ciation, they and their grantors shall have held and worked their said 
claims for a period equal to the time prescribed by the statute of limit- 
ations for mining claims for the State or Territory where the same 
may be situated, evidence of such possession and working of the claims 
for such period shall be sufficient to establish a right to a patent there- 
to under this Act, in the absence of any adverse claim ; Provided, how- 
ever, That nothing in this Act shall be deemed to impair any lien 
which may have attached in any way whatever to any mining claim or 
property thereto attached prior to the issuance of a patent. 

Sec. 14. And be it further enacted, That all exparte affidavits re- 
quired to be made under this Act, or the Act of which it is amendatory, 
may be verified before any officer authorized to administer oaths with- 
in the land district where the claims may be situated. 

Sec. 15. And be it further enacted, That registers and receivers shall 
receive the same fees for services under this Act as are provided by 
law for like services under other Acts of Congress ; and that effect shall 
be given to the foregoing Act according to such regulations as may be 
prescribed by the Commissioner of the General Land Office. 

Sec. 1G. And be it further enacted, That so much of the Act of March 
third, eighteen hundred and fifty three, entitled " An Act to provide 
for the survey of the public lands in California, the granting of pre- 
emption rights, and for other purposes," as provides that none other 
than township lines shall be surveyed where the lands are mineral, is 
hereby repealed. And the public surveys are hereby extended over 
all such lands, Provided, That all subdividing of surveyed lands into 
lots less than one hundred and sixty acres may be done by county and 
local surveyors at the expense of the claimants : And provided further, 
That nothing herein contained shall require the survey of waste or 
useless lands. 

Sec. 17. And be it further enacted, That none of the rights con- 
ferred by sections five, eight, and nine, of the Act to which this Act is 
amendatory shall be abrogated by this Act, and the same are hereby 
extended to all public lands affected by this Act : and all patents grant- 
ed, or pre-emption or homesteads allowed, shall be subject to any ves- 
ted and accrued water rights, or rights to ditches and reservoirs used in 
connection with such water rights as may have been acquired under or 
recognized by the ninth section of the Act of which this Act is amend- 
atory. But nothing in this Act shall be construed to repeal, impair, or 
in any way affect the provisions of the "Act granting to A. Sutro the 
right of way and other privileges to aid in the construction of a drain- 
ing and exploring tunnel to the Comstock lode, in the State of Nev- 
ada," approved July twenty fifth, eighteen hundred and sixty six. 

Approved July 9, 1870. 

* For first port ion (11 sections) of the Act to which this is amendatory, see Gregory 
Yale's publication on mining claims 



62 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



THE U. S. INTERNAL REVENUE LAWS ON DIS- 
TILLATION. 

From an act imposing taxes on distilled spirits and tobacco, and for other purposes. 
Approved July 20, 1868, as amended by Act approved April 10th, 1869.* 

The following extracts from this important act, will be of interest 
to our brandy distillers. 

Section. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representative* 
of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall 
be levied and collected on all distilled spirits on which the tax pre- 
scribed by law has not been paid, a tax of fifty cents on each and every 
proof gallon, to be paid by the distiller, owner, or person having pos- 
session thereof before removal from distillery warehouse ; and the tax 
on such spirits shall be collected on the whole number of guage or 
wine gallons when below proof, and shall be increased in proportion 
for any greater strength than the strength of proof spirit as denned in 
this act ; and any fractional part of a gallon in excess of the number 
of gallons in a cask or package, shall be taxed as a gallon. Every 
proprietor or possessor of a still, distillery, or distilling apparatus, and. 
every person in any manner interested in the use of any such still, dis- 
tillery, or distilling apparatus, shall be jointly and severally liable for 
the taxes imposed by law on the distilled spirits produced therefrom, 
and the tax shall De a first lien on the spirits distilled, the distillery 
used for distilling the same, the stills, vessels, fixtures, and tools there- 
in, and on the lot or tract of land whereon the said distillery is situa- 
ted, together with any building thereon, from the time said spirits are 
distilled until the said tax shall be paid. 

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That proof spirits shall be held 
and taken to be that alcoholic liquor which contains one-half its vol- 
ume of alcohol of a specific gravity of seven thousand nine hundred 
and thirty nine ten thousandths [.7939] at sixty degrees Farenheit ; 
and the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, for the prevention and de- 
tection of frauds by distillers of spirits, is hereby authorized to adopt, 
and prescribe for use such hydrometers, saccharometers, weighing and 
and gauging instruments, meters, or other means for ascertaining the 
quantity, gravity, and producing capacity of any mash, wort, or beer 
used or to be used in the production of distilled spirits, and the strength 
and quantity of spirits subject to tax, as he may deem necessary; and 
he may prescribe rules and regulations to secure a uniform and correct 
system of inspection, weighing, marking, and gauging of spirits. And 
in all sales of spirits hereafter made, a gallon shall be taken to be a 
gallon of proof spirit, according to the foregoing standard set forth and 
declared for the inspection and gauging of spirits throughout the United 
States. The tax on brandy made from grapes shall be the same and 
no higher than that upon other distilled spirits ; and the Commission- 
er of Internal Revenue is hereby authorized, with the approval of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, to exempt distillers of brandy from apples, 
peaches, or grapes exclusively, from such other of the provisions of this 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



act relating to the manufacture of spirits as in liis judgment may seem 
expedient. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That whenever the Commissioner 
of Internal Revenue shall adopt and prescribe for use any meter, met- 
ers, or meter safes it shall be the duty of every owner, agent, or super- 
intendent of a distillery, to furnish and attach at bis own expense such 
meter, meters, or meter safes as may have been prescribed for use at 
his distillery, and to furnish all the pipes, materials, labor, and facili- 
ties necessary to complete such attachment in accordance with the reg- 
ulations of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, who is hereby fur- 
ther authorized to order and require such changes of or additions to 
distilling apparatus, connecting pipes, pumps, or cisterns or any ma- 
chinery connected with or used in or on the distillery premises, or may 
require to be put on any of the stills, tubs, cisterns, pipes, or other ves- 
sels, such fastenings, locks, or seals as he may deem necessary. 

Sec. 5. Provides that a duplicated statement in writing shall be 
handed in to the Assistant Assessor describing the said stills, their ca- 
pacity etc., under penalty of forfeiture and heavy fines if not so 
registered. 

Sec. 6. Provides that Distillers and Rectifiers must give notice in 
writing before commencing business to the Assessor of the district 
within which such business is to be carried, on stating name, place of 
residence etc., etc. 

Sec. 7. Provides that ''every distiller shall, on filing his notice of 
intention to continue or commence business, with the Assessor before 
proceeding with such business, after the passage of this act, and on the 
first day of May, of each succeeding year, make and execute a bond in 
form, prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with at 
least two sureties, to be approved by the Assessor of the district," that 
ho shall faithfully observe the laws on the subject, and "that he will 
not suffer the lot or tract of land on which the distillery stands, or 
any part thereof, or any of the distilling apparatus, to be encumbered 
by mortgage, judgment, or other lien during the time in which he 
shall carry on the said business." 

Sec. 8. Provides that the United States is to have priority of lien 
on distilleries. 

Sec. 9. Provides that accurate plans and descriptions of the dis- 
tillery and distilling apparatus are to be made in triplicate, under the 
direction of the Assessor of the district. One copy is to be displayed 
in the distillery itself; two copies to be furnished to the Assessor of 
the district. 

Sec. 12. Forbids the erection of a still, etc., in any dwelling house, 
shed, yard or inclosure to a dwelling house, or on board any vessel 
or boat, etc. etc. 

Sec. 13. And be it further enacted, That there shall be assessed and 
collected monthly, from every authorized distiller whose distillery has 
an aggregate capacity for mashing and fermenting twenty bushels of 
grain or less, or sixty gallons of molasses or less, in twenty-four hours, 



64 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



a tax of two dollars per day, Sundays excepted ; and a tax of two dol- 
lars per day for every twenty bushels of grain or sixty gallons of mo- 
lasses of said capacity in excess of twenty bushels of grain or sixty 
gallons of molasses in twenty-four hours. But any distiller who shail 
suspend work, as provided by this act, shall pay only two dollars per 
day during the time the work shall be so suspended in his distillery. 

Sec. 15. Orders that everydistiller shall have a warehouse, which 
in effect becomes a bonded warehouse of the United States. 

Sec. 18. Necessitates the erection of a suitable painted sign, with 
letters not less than three inches in hight declaring the name of the 
firm, with the words : "Registered distillery," "rectifier of spirits," 
"wholesale liquor dealer," or "compounder of liquors" as the case may 
be. No wall over five feet high shall be erected or maintained around 
the premises. The Assessor is to have as many keys as he may require 
to the gates and doors of the distillery. 

Several of the following sections relate to distillers' and store-keepers' 
books, the duties of guagers, etc. 

Sec 35. And be it further enacted, That no malt, corn, grain, or 
other material shall be mashed, tl\- any mash, wort, or beer brewed 
or made, nor any still used by a distiller at any time between the hour 
of eleven in the afternoon of any Saturday and the hour of one in the 
forenoon of the next succeeding Monday ; and any person who shall 
violate the provisions of this section shall be liable to a penalty of one 
thousand dollars. 

Sec. 37. And be it further enacted, That no person shall remove any 
distilled spirits at any other time than after sunrising and before sun- 
setting, in any cask or package containing more than ten gallons from 
any premises or building in which the same may have been distilled, 
redistilled, rectified, compounded, manufactured, or stored, and every 
person who shall violate this provision shall be liable to a penalty of 
one hundred dollars for each cask, barrel, or package of spirits so re- 
moved ; and said spirits, together with any vessel containing the same, 
and any horse, cart, boat, or other conveyance used in the removal there- 
of, shall be forfeited to the United States. 

Sec. 59. And be it further enacted That the following special taxes 
shall be, and are hereby, imposed, that is to say : 

Distillers producing one hundred barrels, or less, of distilled spirits, 
counting forty gallons of proof spirits to the barrel, within the year, 
shall each pay fuor hundred dollars, and if producing more than one 
hundred barrels shall pay in addition four dollars for each such barrel 
produced in excess of one hundred barrels. And monthly returns of 
the number of barrels of spirits, as before described, distilled by him, 
shall be made by each distiller in the same manner as monthly returns 
of sales are made. Every person who produces distilled spirits, or who 
brews, or makes mash, wort, or wash, fit for distillation or for the pro- 
duction of spirits, or who by any process of evaporization separates al- 
coholic spirits from any fermented substance, or who, making or keep- 
ing mash, wort, or wash, has also in his possession or use a still, shall 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 65 



be regarded as a distiller : Provided, That a like tax of four dollars on 
each barrel, counting forty gallons of proof spirits to the barrel, shall 
be assessed and collected from the owner of any distilled spirits which 
may be in any bonded warehouse at the date of the taking effect of 
this act, to be paid whenever the same shall be withdrawn from such 
warehouse, under the provisions of the sixty second section of this act : 
Provided, That no tax shall be imposed for any still, stills, or other ap- 
paratus used by druggists and chemists for the recovery of alcohol for 
pharmaceutical or chemical or scientifical purposes, which has been 
used in those processes. 

"The full text will be found in "The United States Revenue and Tariff Law" etc. 
compiled by Horace E. Dresser. 



INTERNAL REVENUE STATISTICS. 



From the report of Mr. Delano, Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
we glean the following statistics : 

The total amount of revenue received, during the year 18G9, from 
distilled spirits, is $45,026,402; from fermented liquors, $6,099,879. 
Total, §51,126,281. The aggregate receipts from all sources of general 
levenue for the year 1869 were $157,838,998, nearly one-third of which 
was from distilled spirits and fermented liquors. By the report of t lie 
Revenue Commission of 1866, we find that in Great Britain 33 per 
cent, of the total revenues was from the same source ; in Russia nearly 
37 per cent., and in France between 12 and 13 per cent. The report 
further states that in Great Britain, in 1859, it was estimated that the 
average consumption of distilled spirits per head amounted to eight- 
tenths of a gallon, while in the United States it equaled at least a 
gallon and one-half per capita. 

The report of the Internal Revenue Bureau for the year ending 
June 30, 1870, shows the total revenue collections from spirits were 
$55,537,354.74 ; from fermented liquors, $6,260,728.14— making a total 
of $61,798,082.88. The internal revenue receipts from all sources 
were $183,634,832.81. Thus the whisky receipts were more than 
one-third of the entire receipts. The revenue from tobacco alone was 
$31,318,535.63. Whisky and tobacco yielded nearly one-half the 
whole revenue. 



NEW YORK CITY. 

Population about 1,000,000, one-half of whom were born in the 
United States, the other half in foreign countries, of forty different 
nationalities; 500,000 people live in 20,000 houses. There are 300 
public schools, 105,000 pupils ; 430 churches, chapels, and missions ; 
7,000 licensed liquor shops. The meat bill of the city for the year is 
$30,000,000, and the liquor bill, $68,000,000. The amount of capital 
invested in manufacturing establishments is $65,000,000 and in 71 



06 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



banks, $90,000,000. New York annually pays $2,500,000 for ice; 
$7,000,000 for theatres and amusements ; $1,500,000 for bouquets and 
floral decorations ; $85,597,484 income, and $4,879,754 revenue taxes to 
tlie United States Internal Revenue Department ; 100,000,000 passen- 
gers travel over the city railroads ; and there are 92,272 persons in the 
institutions under care of the Commissioners of Public Charities. The 
city taxes are $21,000,000 ; 17,000 immigrants land per month at Cas- 
tle Garden; there are 163,493 children between the ages of five and 
fifteen years. 78,450 of whom are in Protestant Sabbath-Schools. 



OUR ROUTE TO AUSTRALIA. 

California was, until the completion of the Pacific Railroad, a very 
much isolated part of the country, and the very expression of " going 
to the States," used even now-a-days for a trip East, would prove the 
truth of this statement. We were more or less provincial in tone, 
although from the nature of our population we were also undeniably 
cosmopolitan in character. We lacked the opportunities for compari- 
son and competition now afforded by easy and rapid means of trans- 
portation to the older States. Nevertheless, all of us had a sincere 
and profound belief in the future of the country and specially in that 
of our commercial capital, feeling absolutely assured that the latter 
was geographically and from every other point of view, destined to 
become the leading seaport of the coast — the New York of the Pacific. 
The completion of the great trans-continental route has made us the 
terminus on this coast for an immense amount of through travel to 
every part of the Pacific Ocean. For two leading sections of the globe, 
our route is undeniably that marked out by nature. The passengers 
for China, etc., find the route via our city short, rapid, and convenient, 
while to those for the Australasian Colonies, it possesses even more 
decided advantages. To us and to them then, the establishment of 
the new line of steamships running from our port in connection with 
the Pacific Railroad is of immense importance. There are two and a 
half millions of white people in Australia and New Zealand, while 
their only means of reaching England was either the expensive route 
via Suez or the tedious voyage round the Horn. The Peninsula and 
Oriental Steamships only take first-class passengers. Their route via 
the Indian Ocean, Point de Galle, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, 
is expensive and eminently unsatisfactory. 

The Colonists paid for the carriage of their mail matter over this 
line as far only as Point de Galle, once a month, no less a subsidy than 
$1,000,000, one-half of which is paid by England and the balance by 
the colonies. In addition to this, one-half per cent, freight is charged 
upon all the gold carried. Each first-class passenger has to pay $600 
for passage, and so independent does the great value of the trade ren- 
der the company that they refuse to take second-class passengers at 
any price. Books, papers, light freight, etc., are charged at exorbitant- 
ly high rates ; yet so great is the demand upon the company's steam- I 



ALT A CALIFORNIA AL.VAX.1C G7 



ers, that very frequently, numerous consignments are left behind to 
the utter disgust of the Colonists, and to the great injury of trade. 
The time occupied in the accomplishment of the voyage from South- 
ampton to Sydney, averages fifty-two to fifty-four days." Thousands of 
passengers have to take the more or less dangerous and unpleasant 
voyages round the Cape of Good Hope on the outward passage from 
England, and round the Horn on the return trip, and such vessels as 
the celebrated steamship Great Britainhave their passenger lists filled 
for months standing. 

The advantages in favor of our route will be seen to be unquestion- 
able. In the first place the saving of time settles the whole question. 
In this age of progress a trade representing imports and exports to the 
amount of $o75.000,000 per annum, will not stand still for twelve or 
more days to please anybody. So that if the advantages in other re- 
spects were as much against us as they are in our favor, this gain of 
time would suffice to outweigh all other considerations. But we may 
go much further. In every respect that is possible to mention the 
balance of advantage is in favor of the San Francisco route. It may 
be worth while to briefly inquire how far this is true. In traveling 
from Australia by the present route there are the terrible cyclones of 
the Indian ocean and the adverse monsoons to be encountered until 
Point de Galle is reached. From thence the voyage is up the Red Sea, 
where during a portion of the year the climate is so unhealthy as to 
almost put a stop to passenger traffic. At Suez freight and passengers 
have to change into railway cars, and then take the steamer at the 
other side, which, according to the choice of the passenger, either takes 
him up the Mediterranean or lands him at Marseilles and leaves him 
to find bis way through the passport system and a foreign population 
across the continent of Europe as best he can. 

By our route the Australian has the advantage of first class steam- 
ships on the Atlantic, thecharges for passage by which are moderate, 
and enabling one to leave almost any day from cither Liverpool or 
New York. He then has an opportunity of seeing something of the 
United States, of breaking the monotony of his trip by a long land 
journey by rail through some of the grandest and most interesting 
scenery in the world; and then on this side he will, by the time these 
pages are in his hand, be able to take passage by steamships superior 
even to most of those on the Atlantic. He will make a rapid voyage 
over an ocean eminently pacific, and will derive all these advantages 
at less cost than by the P. and 0. line. There are many reasons to 
believe that the expense of his through journey will be materially 
reduced; but even now as it stands he can save something like £2 ■"> 
($125) or £30 ($150). We have derived a part of the information 
embodied iu this article from a pamphlet entitled "An American Steam 
Line to Australia," recently issued in this city, and which points out 
conclusively the amount of travel and freight which may be secured 
by us. During 1869 over five and a half million dollars were paid for 
cabin passages alone between Australia and Great Britain. The 
annexed returns show the value of the trade of Australia and Poly- 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



TRADE OP AUSTRALIA AND POLYNESIA, 





1865. . 
Population. 


1869. 
Imports. 


1869. 
Exports. 




441,612 
674,842 
102,143 
195,140 
23,212 
98,203 
264,777 
220,000 


48,127,930 
64,876,965 
12,350,000 
12,531.960 
2,913,462 
4,281,740 
35,123,370 


49,236,940 1 








South Australia. . 


15,823.110 [ 




3,952,470 J 
















2,019,929 


180,205,427 


175,834.571 




1868. 


1868. 






102,000 
44,000 
11,400 
61,000 

321,600 

540,000 


490,000 

450,000 

510,000 

1,811,585 

1,203,600 

4,666,600 


410,000 




445,080 


Tahiti 


730,000 










Estimated population of Polynesia 








The following exhibit of the number of passengers and quantity of 
freight forwarded between Australia and various points, largely by 
sailing vessels, will prove what benefit we may expect to derive from 
our new steamship line, which must and will have many branch lines 
to the southern islands. We may also do well to remember that the 
trade is constantly and rapidly developing and increasing. 



1869. 


Actual passage 
money paid. 


Freight. 




$142,500 

43,425 

127.000 

2,342 

5,544.000 


$543,208 












52,770 




24,552,460 








$5,859,267 


$25,345,304 



The direct American commerce with Australia amounts to several 
millions a year (in 1868 it was $4,848,984, exclusive of the Polynesian 
trade). That shipped via England amounts to not less than $15,000,- 
000 annually. How large a proportion of this may be secured by us 
is apparent at a glance. The bulk of the goods shipped are manufac- 
tured articles, quite a large proportion of which could be profitably 
sent overland, or in many cases could be manufactured .here. 

In addition to the important trade of Australia and New Zealand 
with our country, there is a considerable amount of business with the 
Polynesian Islands, while the future prosperity of this beautiful and 
fertile group is practically unlimited. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Congress has already subsidized the line to Honolulu, and the wis- 
dom of the step has never been questioned. " If then," says the 
pamphlet above referred to, " it be wise to subsidize a line for one- 
third the distance in order to secure the trade of Islands possessing 
only a population of Gl.OOO and taking imports of the annual value of 
but $2,o86.000, it is surely expedient to push on our enterprise the re- 
maining two thirda of the way to a new continent equal in size to the 
United States, with which already we have a trade ten times as great 
as that with Honolulu, and where the population is already forty times 
as numerous, to say nothing of the certainty of building up in the 
future a gigantic trade, which no man to-day can measure." 

The advantages of the route are perhaps better understood in the 
Australian Colonies than here, and New Zealand, Queensland and New 
South Wales have signified their full desire to assist the line by suita- 
ble subsidies, the former having already settled the matter by an 
appropriation of £40,000 (nearly $200,000*.) 

A postal convention between the Un>ted States and New Zealand 
has been signed at Washington, and it is perfectly understood that 
the subsidy question will be settled in the next session of Congress. 
It came up too late for action in the last one, but the feeling in favor 
of it was thoroughly satisfactory. The Colony of Victoria has so far 
given us the cold shoulder, but the number of American residents, 
and the exigencies of business men make it certain that it is only a 
matter of time for its government to join the movement. 

The Australians are as energetic and alive as our own people, and a 
route which offers such advantages in the saving both of time and 
expense, cannot fail to impress them favorably. It is j ust to the Colony 
of Victoria to add that it will be the least benefited in these matters, 
but with the establishment of our line on a first-class basis, all Aus- 
tralia will heartily welcome and give it their unqualified support. 

It is probable that at no very distant date reductions on the scale of 
charges for passage and freight may be made specially in favor of the 
Australian line, on the overland railroad and by the great Atlantic 
steamship lines. Such was the feeling recently expressed at the great 
Railroad meeting in Chicago 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 



The Independent Order of Odd Fellows celebrate, on the 26th of 
April, the fifty-second anniversary of the establishment of the Order in 
America. The principles of the Order, which is a secret one, are 
Friendship, Love and Truth. The Order in California is in a very 
prosperous and flourishing condition. There are 181 subordinate 
Lodges, with a membership of over 14.000. The receipts of 149 Lodges 
for the past year amounted to $299,036.99 ; amount of assets of 
Lodges, $670,327.27; amount expended for relief during the year, 
$86,589.90. 



70 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Grand Officers. — Following is a list of the R. W. Grand Lodge of 
California for the year : 

C. W. Dannals M. "W. Grand Master. Sweetland 

Wm. H.Hill R. W. Deputy Grand Master .Sacramento 

A. C. Bradford R. W. Grand Warden Mariposa 

T. Rodders Johnson R. W. Grand Secretary San Francisco 

Henry B . Brooks R. W. Grand Treasurer San Francisco 

H. J. Tilden R. W. Grand Representative San Francisco 

John B. Harmon R. W. Grand Representative San Francisco 

Rev. T. H. Sinex Worthy Grand Chaplain Santa Clara 

H. Wartenberg Worthy Grand Marshal Los Anceles 

G. Warner Wortby Grand Conductor Petaluma 

E. W. O'Brian Worthy Grand Guardian Vallejo 

L. Zoller , .Worthy Grand Herald Sacramento 

Encampment Branch, I. 0. of O. F. — The Encampment branch 
of the Order of Odd Fellows, though the higher, does not number as 
many members or Lodges as the lower branch. In this jurisdiction 
there are thirty-eight Encampments, with a large membership. The 
receipts for the year amount to $34,900.25. Following is a list of the 
Grand Officers of the E. W. Grand Encampment of California: 

C Bartlett M. W. Grand Patriarch San Francisco 

L. Korn M. E. Grand High Priest Sacramento 

E. W. Bradford R. W. Grand Senior Warden Bath 

T. Rodgers Johnson R. W. Grand Scribe San Francisco 

David Hunter R. W. Grand Treasurer San Francisco 

D. A. McFarland R. W. Grand Junior Warden Rowland Flat 

C. N. Fox R. W. Grand Representative San Francisco 

Nathan Porter R. W. Grand Representative San Francisco 

A. Meyer Worthy <~; r and Sentinel San Franc sco 

E. Dunker Worthy Deputy Grand Sentinel San Francisco 

From the annual statistics we take the following concerning the 
condition of the Order under the jurisdiction of the R. W. Grand 
Lodge of the United States, for the year ending June 80, 1870 : Num- 
ber of Grand Lodges, 41 ; number of subordinate Lodges, 3,754 ; num- 
ber of members, 298,083 ; number of brothers relieved, 25,004 ; number 
of widowed families relieved, 3,876 ; amount paid for relief of brothers, 
$578,684.81 ; for relief of widowed families, $122,043.65 ; for education 
of orphans, $19,444.16; for burying the dead, $132,601.21. Total 
amount of relief, $859,469.86. Amount of annual receipts, $2,714,- 
288.93. The Encampment branch of the Order shows the following : 
Number of Grand Encampments, 31 ; subordinate Encampments, 1,059 ; 
members, 56,215 ; members relieved, 3,839 ; widowed families relieved, 
195 ; amount paid for relief of members, $75,734.02 ; amount paid for 
the relief of widowed families. $4,848.58. 



FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 

Faith, Hope and Charity but the greatest of these is CJiarity. These 
are the cardinal virtues of the Order of Free and Accepted Masons. 
This secret Order, the oldest in existence, is spread in all climes and 
countries, and wherever a brother is in distress, he will find succor 
and relief. The charities disbursed by the Masonic Relief Boards and 
the various Lodges amount to hundreds of thousands of dollars an- 
nually and are given unostentatiously. In the United States alone 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 71 



there are 8,000 Lodges, numbering over 500,000 members. In Califor- 
nia there are about 180 Lodges, with over 9,000 members in good 
standing. The oldest Grand Lodge in the United States is in Vermont, 
one organized in 1771. Following is a list of officers of the M, W. 
Grand Lodge of California : 

Leonidas E. Pratt, M. W. Grand Master San Francisco 

Isaac S. Titus I!. W. Deputy Grand Master PI:-. 

( lharles L. Wiggin R. W. Senior Grand Warden San Francisco 

Benjamin II. Freeman U. W. Junior Grand Warden San F 

James Laidlry V. W. (irand Tr< asurcr San Francisco 

Alexander < i. Abell V. W. Grand Secretary San Francisco 

William H.Hill V. R. Grand Chaplain Sacramento 

J. M. Brown W. Grand Orator Vallejo 

Lawrence C. Owen W. Assistant Grand Secretary San Francisco 

John W. ShaeSer W. Grand Lecturer San Francisco 

William V. McGarvey Vv". Grand Marshal San Juan 

Rev. Benjamin Akoriey W. Gland Bible Bearer Oakland 

Robert Aitkin W. Grand Standard Bearer Jackson 

Henry O. Weller W. Grand Sword Bearer San Jose 

Columbus A. Purinton W. Senior Grand Deaoon Fiddlctown 

Abisha Swain W. Junior (Irand Deacon Etna Mills 

Eliaa Jacob W. Grand Steward Visalia 

Seigmund Simon W. Grand Steward Scott's Bar 

Samuel D. Mayer W. f irand Organist San Francisco 

William W. Reed W. Grand Pursuivant San Leandro 

James Oglesby W. Grand Tyler San Francisco 

Tlie Grand Consistory. 

The Grand Consistory of the State of California was organized on 
October 13th, 1870, by 111. E. H. Shaw 33°, Sovereign Grand Inspector- 
General, Grand Prior of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdic- 
tion of the United States, assisted by 111. T. H. Caswell 33°, Active 
Member of the Supreme Council, and" 111. Isaac S. Titus 33°, Honorary 
Member of the Supreme Council. The following named S. P. R. S. 
were duly installed: 

William T. Reynolds Grand Commander-in-Chief San Francisco 

Dr. John M.Brown First Lieutenant-Commander \ all-jo 

William A. Davies Second Lieutenant-Commander Stockton 

Leonard Goss Grand Constable Sacra me nto 

Charles Marsh Grand Admiral Nevada city 

Dr. H. H. Hubbard Grand Chancellor San Francisco 

Dr. Washington Ayer Grand Mini ter of State San Francisco 

William C. Belcher Grand Hospi taller Mar;. -villa 

Edwin A. Sherman Grand Registrar Sair 

Oscar V.Walker Grand Keeper of the Seals.. Petal uma 

Milton S. Latham Grand Treasurer San Francisco 

A. A. McAllister Grand Primate Marysville 

Dr. J. W. Harville Grand Master of Ceremonies San Francisco 

Thomas Kyle Grand Expert San Fran- ism 

S. G. Hilborn Grand Assistant Expert Vallejo 

George A. Shurtleff Grand Beaiisenifer Stockton 

Hon. E. W. Roberts Grand Bearer Vexillum Belli Grass Valley 

AlvinP. Preston Grand Master cf the Guards Sonora 

Andrew J. Binney Grand Chamberlain Marysville 

Daniel M. Hosmcr Grand Steward Fore t Hill 

R. J. Van Voorhies Grand Aide-de-camp Placerville 

Ira C. Root Grand Tyler San Francisco 



A public-bouse keeper of questionable honesty went to a lawyer to con- 
sult hiru about commencing an action of defamation against a fellow- 
townsman. "The scoundrel," said be fiercely, "has robbed me of my 
character." " Ah, has he ? Are you sure of that fact?" replied the blue- 
bag gentleman, quickly, and in a sarcastic tone. "If so, for heaven's sake 
let him go; for it is the most lucky thing that ever happened to you!" 
The fellow sneaked out of the office like a puppy when a foot is raised 
againt him. 



72 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAG. 



DOMESTIC POSTAGE. 

The postage on letters is 3 cents for each half oz or fraction thereof, and 
3 cents for every additional half oz. or fraction thereof. All letters must 
be prepa d. Registration fee for letters, 15 cents. 

Books not over 4 oz. in weight to one address, 4 cents ; over 4 oz. and 
not over 8 oz., 8 cents ; over 8 oz. and not over 12 oz., 12 cents ; over 12 oz. 
and not over 16 oz., 16 cents. 

Circulars not exceeding three in number to one address, 2 cents ; over 
3 and not over 6, 4 cents ; over 6 and not over 9, 6 cents ; over 9 and not 
exceeding 12 in number, 8 cents. 

Miscellaneous Mailable Matter, embracing all pamphlets, occasional 
publications, transient newspapers, hand-bills and posters, book manu- 
scripts and proof-sheets, whether corrected or not, maps, flexible patterns, 
samples and sample cards, phonographic paper, letter envelopes, postal 
envelopes or wrappers, cards, paper, plain or ornamental, photographic 
representations of different types, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots and scions, 
tho postage to be prepaid by stamps is on one package to one address, not 
over 4 oz. in weight 2 cents; over 4 oz. and not over 8 oz., 4 cents ; over 
8 oz. and not over 12 oz., 6 cents ; over 12 oz. and not over 16 oz., 8 cents. 

Letter postage charged on printed matter which contains any manu- 
script writing whatever. Daguerreotypes charged with letter postage 
weight. 

All mail matter not sent at letter rates of postage, with the exception of 
seeds, must be wrapped or enveloped with open sides or ends, to as to 
enable the postmaster to examine the package without destroying the 
wrapper, otherwise such package must be rated with letter postage. 



MONEY ORDERS. 

Money orders only payable at the office upon which they are drawn. 
No single order issued for more than $50. Parties desiring to remit larger 
amounts must obtain additional money orders. No applicant can obtain 
in one day more than three orders payable at the same office and to the 
same nayee. U. S. Treasury Notes or National Bank Notes only received 
or paid. 

The charges upon orders are as follows : Not exceeding $20, 10 cents ; 
over $20 and not exceeeding $30, 15 cents ; over $30 and not exceeding $40, 
20 cents ; over $40 and not exceeding $50, 25 cents. 

Money Order Offices in California. 

Antioch, Auburn, Benicia, Camptonville, Chico, Columbia, Colusa, 
Downieville, Dutch Flat, Eureka, Folsom City, Forrest Hill, Georgetown 
Gibsonville, Gilroy, Grass Valley, Healdsburg, lone Valley, Jackson, La 
Porte, Los Angeles, Lincoln, Mariposa, Markieeville, Martinez, Marys' 
ville, Mendocino, Mokelumne Hill, Monterey, Napa City, Nevada, Oak 
land, Oroville, Petaiuma, Placerville, Red Bluff, Sacramento, San Ber 
nardino, San Francisco, San Jose, San Rafael, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa 
Shasta, Sonora, Stockton, Santa Barbara, South San Diego, Suisun, Susan 
ville, Vacavi lie, VaJlejo.Visalia, Watsonville, "Weaverville, Wilmington 
Woodland, Yreka. 



An American on his travels says: "I asked a fellow-tourist his opinion 
of the Rhine. ' Wal, sir,' said he, ' it is not so grand as the North River. 
We ain't got them old castles, to be sure, but our water's as broad, and 
our rocks twice as big, and mostly perpendie'lar.' I remarked that the 
Rhine ruins were extremely picturesque, and certainly enhanced the 
beauty of the river. ' Wal,' said he ' ^shouldn't wonder if our builders 
could put up a few if we offered them the contract, but our people don't 
deal much in ruins, that's a fact, and when you come to think of it, you 
can't say there's much use in 'em." 








ALTA 


CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 


73 




TABLE OF DISTANCES 

From San 


TO POINTS INLAND. 

Francisco 

MILHS 














Vallejo 






28 










.... SO 










48 
























Rio Vista 










Sacramento, via Oa 

" via Va 

" viaSa 

Stockton, via Oakla 

" via River 






.... 138 












;ramento River 

nd 


120 
















21 




























































732 


























From Sacramento 












.... 16k 




















::::::::::: 228 










^l 


























































































136 








































282 




















617 
















From S 

MILES. 

36 


tockton 

To Big Trees 

Mariposa 

Yosemite Valley 

Visalia 

Mono Lake 


MILES. 

94 

130 

187 

205 

395 




CampoSeco 


46 




Mokelumme Hill.. 
Sonora 


49 

75 

71 




To NapaJunction 

Suscol 

Napa 

Yountville 


From 

7 

11% 

16 

25 


Vallejo 

To Oakville 


28 

34 






43 











74 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 




DISTANCES BETWEEN PACIFIC PORTS 






" 


MILES.* 


MILBS.f 




From San Francisco to Sydney, via Honolulu 


. .6,456 


6,700 




From San Francisco to Melbourne, via Honolulu 


.6,860 


7,160 




i From San Francisco to Calcutta, via Honolulu 


.6,810 


11,380 




I From San Francisco to Yokohama, via Honolulu 


.4,460 


5,580 




I From San Francisco to Shanghai, via Honolulu 


.5,328 


5,740 




I From San Francisco to Hongkong, via Honolulu. ... 


.6,012 


7,000 




| From San Francisco to Panama, N. G 


. .2,886 


3,260 




1 From San Francisco to Callao, Peru 


.3,012 


4,010 




1 From San Francisco to Valparaiso, Chile 


..5,124 


5,300 




1 From San Francisco to Acapulco, Mexico 


..1,740 


1,850 




From San Francisco to Manzanillo, Mexico 


..1,472 


1,550 




From San Francisco to Mazatlan, Mexico 


.1,200 


1,300 




From San Francisco to Gruaymas, Mexico 


. 864 


1,530 




From San Francisco to Cape San Lucas, Mexico 


.1,104 


1,145 




From San Francisco to San Diego, California 


. 400 


450 




From San Francisco to Portland, Oregon 


.. 462 


670 




From San Francisco to Victorra, V. I 


. 654 


746 




From San Francisco to New Westminster, B. C 


. 690 


815 




From San Francisco to New Archangel, Sitka Islands 


.1,284 


1,200 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Panama, N. G 


..4,560 


4,580 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Callao, Peru 


. .5,172 


5,364 




3 From Honolulu, H. I., to Valparaiso, Chile 


.5,928 


5,990 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Acapulco, Mexico 


.3,282 


3,282 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Mazatlan, Mexico 


.2,856 


2,856 




T^rom Honolulu, H. I., to Guaymas, Mexico 


.2,580 


3,012 
2,658 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Cape San Lucas, Mexico.. . . 


.2,658 




From Honolulu, H. I., to San Diego, California 


.2,262 


2,262 




From Honolulu, H. I., to San Francisco, California. . . 


.2,080 


2,080 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Portland, Oregon 


.2,256 


2,330 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Victoria, V. I 


.2,310 


2,330 




From Honolulu, H. I., to New Westminster, B. C . . . . 


.2,358 


2,410 




From Honolulu, H. I., to New Archangel, Sitka Islands . 2,370 


2,370 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Yokahama, Japan 


.3,354 

.4,8-18 


3,475 
5.017 
4,820 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Canton, China 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Sydney, N. S. W 


.4,405 




From Honolulu, H. I., to Melbourne, Victoria 


.4,810 


5,280 




From Panama, N. G., to Sydney, N. S. W 


.7,648 


7,690 




From Panama, N. G., to Canton, China 


.8,7Cu 


9,577 




From Panama, N. G., to Tahiti, Society Islands 


.4,430 


4,540 




"Shortest Distances in Nautical Miles. fShortest Sailing Route 


in Nautical Miles. 





ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



FOREIGN CONSULAR SERVICE IN SAN FRANCISCO. 

Argentine Republic Chas. Baum, 510 Battery street 

Austro-Hungarian Empire G. Mueckc, 103 California street 

Bavaria C. F. Mebius ; E. Mechelssen (Acting), 431 Battery street 

Belgium Salvador Morhange, Grand Hotel, Consul-Genera] 

Chile H. Barroilhet, (Belloc Freres), 524 Montgomery street 

Denmark G. Tiara Taaffe, 402 California street 

France E. Breuil, 434 Jackson street 

Guatemala J. Urruela, 401) Battery street 

Great Britain W. L. Booker, 319 California street 

Greece Geo. Fisher, N. W. cor. Jackson and Montgomery streets 

Hawaiian Islands H. W. Severence, 405 Front street 

Honduras Win. V. Wells, City Hail 

Italy G. B. Cerruti, 1415 Powell street 

Japan C. W. Brooks (Absent) 

Mexico I. Rivas, 536 Kearny street 

Netherlands J. DeFremery, 710 Sansomc street 

North German Union C. A. C. Duisenberg, 314 Sacramento street 

Norway and Sweden Geo. C. Johnson, 33 Battery street 

Portugal and Switzerland F. Berton, 527 Clay street 

Russia M. Klinkofstrom, N. E. cor. Front and Commercial streets 

Salvador B. J. Dorsey, Merchants' Exchange 

Spain C. Martin, 421 California street 

United States of Colombia F. Herrera, 12G Second street 

Nicaragua and Bolivia 

Wurtemburg I. Wormser, cor. California and Front streets 

Discovery of a Sunken Rock in Rosario Straits. 

Hitherto apparently unnoticed, a sunken rock has been discovered 
in Rosario Straits (Paget Sound) by the U. S. Coast Survey. This 
hidden danger lies in the track of vessels making what is known as 
the " inside passage " to ports in Washington Territory, British Col- 
umbia and Alaska. The following is the circular in regard to it : 

" A dangerous ledge lying in the southern entrance to Rosario 
Strait, Washington Sound, has been discovered by Assistant James S. 
Lawson. Although not yet examined in detail, the Superintendent 
has authorized the publication of a preliminary notice of this danger 
to navigation. It ts a rocky ledge of small extent, marked by kelp ; 
and 4i fathoms of water was found upon it at high water, but the de- 
tailed survey may develope points having less water. Close to it. upon 
all sides, the depth of water is gaeat, as much as 5G fathoms being 
found between it and Deception Pass. The following bearings and 
distances are given to locate it : From Blunt's Island Light it bears 
N. 20° E. (Magnetic) 7£ miles ; from S, E. point of Watmough Head 
N. 85° E. 4 miles ; from the Southernmost point of the Bird Rocks, S. 
43° E. 5£ miles ; from Deception Island S. 58A° W. | miles. It has 
been named the " Lawson Reef." Geoege Davidsox, 

Asst. U. S. Coast Survey, in charge Pacific Coast. 



76 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



THE FIRST DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA. 



The very deepest interest attaches naturally to the history of men 
who, whether by accident or otherwise, are the founders of a country. 
We need make no excuse for giving in this place a brief condensed 
account of the life of James W. Marshall, the first discoverer of gold 
in California, taken from the admirable work by Gr. F. Parsons,* 
recently published in Sacramento, which gives in a concise form the 
history of the events which led to the permanent settlement of our 
State. The work itself may be strongly recommended, not only for 
its intrinsic merits, but also for the reason that it is being sold for the 
benefit of Marshall himself. 

John Wilson Marshall was born in Hope Township, Hunterdon 
County, N. J., in 1812. At the age of twenty-one he started from 
home, and after sundry wanderings in what was then known as " the 
West " — our West is only limited by the Pacific Ocean now-a-days — 
he joined, in May, 1844, an emigrant train bound for California. At 
Fort Hall a disruption of the party occurred, the end of which was 
that Marshall joined a party of forty men, who, after wintering in 
Oregon, reached California in June, 1845. To make a long story 
short, Marshall proceeded to Sutter's Fort, and in July, 1845, engaged 
himself to work for Captain Sutter. The latter, an early Swiss set ler, 
had started a ranch, and also did some trading with the Indians. 
Marshall followed the even tenor of his way for some months, when 
an event occurred which threatened disastrous results to the little 
colony. 

" In the Spring of 1846 Sutter received intelligence to the effect that 
the Spaniards at the Mission San Jose - were inciting the Indians to 
attack him and burn his wheat. They had always regarded him with 
jealousy as a foreign intruder upon their soil, and at length their dis- 
like was about to take shape in open hostilities. He learned, more- 
over, that Eaphero had been induced to take command of the Indians 
who were charged with the work of destruction, and knowing the 
energy, cunning and bravery of the Mokelumne chief, he felt that 
prompt and decisive action was necessary. Some time before this, 
Kaphero, chief of the Mokelumnes, had killed a brother-in-law of his 
own. In that unsettled period, when the laws were either wholly 
disregarded or loosely administered, this homicide would, under 
ordinary circumstances, have probably entailed no punishment upon 
the offender; but Sutter saw in it the opportunity he needed, and 
being armed with the requisite authority as a Mexican Alcalde, he 
caused Raphero to be arrested on a charge of murder and brought 
prisoner to the fort. Undoubtedly he was doomed from the moment 
he set foot within those walls. His influence with his tribe, his des- 
perate courage and his sagacity rendered him an enemy too formida- 
ble to be suffered to escape. A trial was granted him, and his defense 
was characteristically shrewd. He held a commission as Lieutenant 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 11 



from the Mexican Government, and claimed that under this instru- 
ment he was authorized to kill horse thieves, and that as the relative 
slain by him was an offender against the laws in this respect, ho 
should bo held blameless. The defense was plausible, but, unfortu- 
nately for himself, he was unable to prove that the slain man was a 
horse thief; and after a reasonable time had been given him to collect 
evidence on this point, ho was convicted of murder and sentenced to 
be shot. Marshall and his comrades were called upon to execute the 
sentence, but they refused, and Sutter was compelled to rely upon his 
Indian trappers. Raphero met his fate with stoical coolness. When 
he was led to the place of execution and the firing party were drawn 
up in front of him, it was found that a horse was standing in the line 
of fire at his rear. A man was sent to remove the animal, and while 
the party were waiting, Raphero turned his head and asked the cause 
of the delay. ' Why do you not shoot me ? ' he cried ; ' are you afraid \ ' 
In another minute the signal was given, and six balls riddled the 
breast of the unfortunate chief, who fell forward and died without a 
murmur or a sigh. So impressed were Marshall and the other white 
men with his bravery that they gave him a military funeral, firing 
volleys over his grave in token of their respect for his undying 
courage." 

Sutter strengthened his fort, enrolled the white men of the neigh- 
borhood, and after many adventures attacked and routed the Indians 
on the banks of the Mokelumne River. Marshall was severely 
wounded in this encounter. A poisoned arrow shot from an Indian 
bow struck him, and it is questionable whether he would have lived 
had not a friendly Indian hunter made up for him a poultice of herbs, 
which Marshall supplemented with a well-masticated quid of tobacco. 
That done, his life was saved. 

Passing over a most interesting account of the Bear Flag war, Fre- 
mont's expedition, the capture of Monterey and the revolt at Los 
Angeles, let us proceed to the narrative of the event which has made 
California. Before the breaking out of the Bear Flag war, Marshall 
had a ranch of his own on Butte Creek. During his absenco his stock 
had strayed or had been stolen, and, somewhat disgusted, he deter- 
mined to go into the lumbering business, and with this view sought 
the co-operation and assistance of Captain Sutter. A partnership was 
eventually arranged, and a sawmill built at Culloomah (now Coloma). 
It was at this place that the discovery of the first gold was made. On 
the morning of the 19th of January, 1848, Marshall, inspecting the 
tail-race, stooped down to examine the debris that had been washed 
down, " when his eye caught the glitter of something that lay lodged 
in a crevice on a riffle of soft granite, some six inches under the water. 
His first act was to stoop and pick up the substance. It was heavy, 
of a peculiar color, and unlike anything he had seen in the stream 
before. For a few minutes he stood with it in his hand, reflecting and 
endeavoring to recall all that he had heard or read concerning the 
various minerals. After a close examination, he became satisfied that 
what he held in his hand must be one of three substances — mica, sul- 



78 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



phuret of copper, or gold. The weight assured him that it was not 
mica. Could it be sulphuret of copper ? He remembered that that 
mineral is brittle, and that gold is malleable ; and as this thought 
passed through his mind he turned about, placed the specimen upon a 
fiat stone, and proceeded to test it by striking it with another. The 
substance did not crack or flake off — it simply bent under the blows. 
This, then, was gold ; and in this manner was the first gold found in 
California. 

" If we were writing a sensation tale, instead of a sober history, we 
might proceed to relate how Marshall sank pale and breathless upon a 
neighboring rock, and how, as he eyed the glittering metal in his 
hand, a vision rose before him of the mighty results of his discovery. 
But in fact nothing of the kind occurred. The discoverer was not one 
of the spasmodic and excitable kind, but a plain, shrewd, practical 
fellow, who realized the importance of the discovery (though doubtless 
not to its full extent, since no one did that then), and proceeded with 
his work as usual, after showing the nugget to his men and indulging 
in a few conjectures' concerning the probable extent of the gold fields. 
As a matter of course, he watched closely from time to time for further 
developments, and in the course of a few days had collected several 
ounces of the precious metal. Although, however, he was satisfied in 
his own mind that it was gold, there were some who were skeptical ; 
and as he had no means of testing it chemically, he determined to take 
some down to his partner at the fort and have the question finally 
decided. Some four days after the discovery it became necessary for 
him to go below, for Sutter had failed to send a supply of provisions 
to the mill, and the men were on short commons. So, mounting his 
horse, and taking some three ounces of gold dust with him, he started. 
Having always an eye to business, he availed himself of this opportu- 
nity to examine the river for a site for a lumber yard, whence the 
timber cut at the mill could be floated down ; and while exploring for 
this purpose he discovered gold in a ravine in the foot-hills, and also 
at the place afterwards known as Mormon Island. That night he 
slept under an oak tree, some eight or ten miles east of the fort, where 
he arrived about nine o'clock the next morning. Dismounting from 
his horse, he entered Sutter's private office and. proceeded to inquire 
into the cause of the delay in sending up the provisions. This matter 
having been explained, and the teams being in a fair way to load, he 
asked for a few minutes private conversation with Colonel Sutter, and 
the two entered a little room at the back of the store, reserved as a 
private office. Then Marshall showed him the gold. He looked at it 
in astonishment, and, still doubting, asked what it was. His visitor 
replied that it was gold. ' Impossible ! ' was the incredulous ejacula- 
tion of Sutter. Upon this, Marshall asked for some nitric acid to test 
it, and a mquero having been dispatched to the gunsmith's for that 
purpose, Sutter inquired whether there was no other way in which it 
could be tested. He was told that its character might be ascertained 
by weighing it, and accordingly some silver coin ($3 25 was all the 
fort could furnish), and a pair of small scales or balances having been 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 79 



obtained,- Marshall proceeded to weigh the dust, first in the air, and 
then in two bowls of water. Tho experiment resulted as lie bad fore- 
seen. The dust went down; the coin rose lightly up. Sutter gazed, 
and bis doubts faded, and a subsequent test with the nitric acid, 
which by this time bad arrived, settled the question finally. Then 
the excitement began to spread. Sutter knew well the value of the 
discovery, and in a short time, having made hurried arrangements at 
tile fort, be returned with Marshall to Coloma, to see for himself the 
wonder that bad been reported to him. * * * * 

"Two and twenty years have passed over Coloma since the day 
when James Marshall stood at the end of the tail-race and pondered 
over that bit of yellow metal. That bit of yellow metal lias been 
multiplied by millions upon millions. The trilling acceleration of the 
pulse that marked the fiist emotion of the discoverer has swelled into 
a wave of maddening excitement, whose roar has re-echoed round the 
world. The spring struck in that little mountain valley lias flowed 
and spread until mighty cities have been built upon its banks and 
communities have been refreshed by its waters. From out that won- 
derful vale has risen all of good and evil that can affect humanity. 
At first the centre of the swarming adventurers, leaping, as it -were, in 
a moment from the quiet bum-drum of its early settlement into the 
full glare and crash of a mighty mining excitement, it has passed 
through the prosperity, the fever, the noise, the hurly-burly and the 
slow decline, and has settled at last into the peaceful semblance of 
some New England village.'' 

Marshall's subsequent history, as narrated in the interesting work 
from which we have quoted, is that of many Californians. He has bad 
his ups and downs — bis days of fortune and poverty. He has retained, 
however, a small ranch at Coloma, and is a hard-working man, 
respected through all tho country round. It will be a lasting shame 
to California should she permit the man who, as the discoverer of the 
first gold, virtually gave the country its first start, to die in compara- 
tive poverty. Marshall should be liberally pensioned by the State. 



THE CLIMATE OF CALIFORNIA. 



The climate of California is as near perfection as it is possible to 
wish or conceive. San Francisco is generally considered to be an 
exception to the general rule, and its cold winds and fogs did at one 
time give it an unenviable reputation, although the last season has 
been remarkable for the absence of these drawbacks, and for its steady, 
equable, temperature. Mr. Hittell, in his essay on " California as a 
Home for the Emigrant," says, justly, that the climate anywhere south 
of Cape Mendocino can only be described as " an eternal Spring. In 
San Francisco the roses bloom throughout the year in the open air, 
and the olive, fig, orange, and a multitude of other semi-tropical fruits, 
thrive and bear fruit one hundred miles further north. The same 
reasons that induce hundreds of thousands of the natives of Northern 



80 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Europe to visit the shores of the Mediterranean every year will drive 
the people of the colder portions of the North American continent to 
resort to California." *-»«*** 

The middle coast of California has an average annual temperature 
of 54° Fahrenheit. On the 29th of December, 1856, snow covered the 
hills about San Francisco for a few hours, but it was an event to be 
noted. There are usually very few really sultry days during a San 
Francisco summer ; still more rare has been (the past season excepted) 
a warm night. It is interesting to compare the climate of other cities 
with our own. " New York is 18°, London 12°, and Naples 3° colder 
in January ; and New York 15°, London 5 Q , and Naples 19q warmer 
in July. Better wind and fog than freezing cold and torrid heat. 
No climate can be more favorable to labor and life in the open air than 
that of San Francisco. The constant coolness invites activity, and 
even requires it as a condition of comfort. 

" As we leave the ocean and go inland, the influence of the trade 
winds decreases and the heat of summer and cold of winter increase. 
The sea breezes make the winters warmer, as well as the summers 
cooler. At Sonoma, twenty miles from the ocean, and at Sacramento, 
ninety miles from the ocean, January is 4° colder, and July is at the 
former place 9°, and in the latter 16° warmer than in San Francisco. 
The ocean breezes seem to lose their influence over the winter at 
twenty miles from the ocean, but their influence over the summer 
weather extends much further inland. Sacramento is near the central 
wind-gap of the Golden Gate, whence the breezes blow into the inte- 
rior basin ; and the temperature of July is 17° less there than at Fort 
Miller and 9° less than at Fort Reading, which two points are near 
the southern and northern extremities of the basin, respectively. 

" In the Sierra Nevada the element of altitude comes in to affect the 
climate, and especially to prolong and intensify the winters. The 
higher portions of the Sierra rise to the limits of perpetual snow, and 
the climate there is of course arctic in its severity, the thermometer 
falling below the freezing point every night in the year. The mining 
camps are mostly situated in deep ravines, where the wind has little 
opportunity to blow, and the heat of summer in midday is very 
oppressive, even at an elevation of five or six thousand feet ; but the 
nights are always cool. At Grass Valley, in latitude 39°, 2,500 feet 
above the sea, the average of January is 27°, and of Juty 63°. At Fort 
Jones, about the same altitude, in latitude 41°, the temperature of 
January and July are about the same. Between the mountains and 
the valleys, the coast and the interior, the north and the south, we 
have every variety of climate save the tropical. Thunder storms are 
almost unknown on the coast, and are not frequent in the Sierra 
Nevada. 

"Rain seldom comes between May and October, which period is 
called the dry season, the remaining months being the rainy season. 
The amount of rain, however, that falls in a year in the central and 
southern valleys of the State is considerably less than in the Eastern 
States. At San Francisco, for instance, the average rainfall is twenty- 



AITA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 81 



two inches, while in New York it is forty-three, in St. Louis forty-one, 
and in New Orleans fifty. As a general rule, the amount of rain 
increases in California with altitude and latitude. Thus, at Fort Yuma 
the average rainfall is four inches; at San Diego, ten ; at Stockton, 
fifteen; at Sacramento, twenty; at Fort Reading, twenty -nine ; at 
Sonora, thirty-five ; at Grass Valley, forty ; and at Fort "Humboldt, 
thirty-four." 



THE KIND OF IMMIGRANTS FOR CALIFORNIA. 



[From the Report of the State Board of Agriculture for 1869. j 
The class of immigration we most need in California is such as will 
come to make permanent homes for themselves and families. We 
want, above all others, persons skilled in a great variety of agricultu- 
ral pursuits. We want persons skilled in the culture and manufacture 
of silk, in all its departments. We want vine-growers and wine- 
makers. We want beet-raisers and sugar manufacturers. We want 
tea culturists and fruit preservers. In short, we want people skilled 
in the production of all the necessaries and luxuries of life, for we 
have a State possessed of all the requisite conditions for their s u 
ful cultivation. We want such as will bring with them sufficient 
means, energy and capacity to enter upon business for themselves; 
such as will buy land and become citizens and practical and prosper 
ous farmers, or build shops and factories, and follow some mechanical 
or manufacturing occupation. In order to induce this class of p 
to leave their homes and business in the Atlantic States and come 
hero to reside, we must promise them opportunities for making better 
homes and better business here. Are we prepared in good faith to 
make such promises? And, having made them, are we prepared in 
like good faith to fulfil them ? So far as natural advantages — such 
as climate, soil and location— are concerned, wo are prepared to 
answer both these questions in the affirmative. We may also say 
there are millions of acres of arable land, much of it as good as any 
now cultivated in the State, lying idle and unoccupied, and that by 
the completion of railroads already projected, and many of them now 
being built, much of this land will in a short time be brought within 
easy distances of good markets for products that may be raised 
upon it. 



OREGON AND ITS RESOURCES. 

The Board of Statistics, Immigration and Labor Exchange, of Port- 
land, Oregon, an organization designed for affording information to 
the immigrant, settler and laborer, has recently published a pamphlet 
on " Oregon and its Resources, Climate and Productions." From this 
valuable little work we excise the following information : 

" The principal agricultural districts of Oregon are the valleys of 
the Willamette, the Umpqua and Rogue River, all in the western 

m 

6 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



part of the State. The soil of these valleys is remarkably fertile, pro- 
ducing abundantly every variety of grain, grass, fruits and vegetables 
known to a temperate climate. The best wheat lands yield an average 
of thirty bushels per acre, one year with another. Frequently a yield 
of forty or fifty bushels per acre is obtained. There are farms in the 
Willamette Valley which have been cultivated in wheat fifteen years 
in succession, without manure of any kind, and without any apparent 
diminution of tho yield. It is not the custom of the farmers to manure 
their wheat fields ; they do not need it. Oats yield a crop of from 
fifty to eighty bushels per acre. Three tons of timothy hay per acre 
is the ordinary yield of 'the rich meadow bottoms. Apple, pear and 
other fruit trees come to full bearing in three years from transplant- 
ing. Volunteer crops of wheat and barley are frequently raised ; that 
is, a field is seeded with nothing but the grains scattered during the 
process of harvesting, and is suffered to lie over without any further 
cultivation until the succeeding harvest, producing a fair crop. Oregon 
wheat ranks as first quality in all the markets of the world, and Ore- 
gon flour is quoted in the New York market reports at the highest 
rates. 

" The eastern part of Oregon, consisting of high rolling prairies and 
table lands, is especially adapted to grazing purposes. The most 
nutritious varieties of wild grass grow everywhere in abundance. 
Cattle, sheep and horses may be grazed the year round. It was the 
custom of the Indians of this section, in former years, to raise large 
herds of horses without providing any feed for them for the winter. 
The settlers in tho same region rarely feed their cattle during the 
winter. Timber and water of good quality is found in plenty in most 
localities. Several large bodies of agricultural land of the best quality 
are still unoccupied. So far as the soil has been tested in this section, 
it has been found to produce abundantly grain of all kinds, fruits and 
vegetables. Many of the rich valleys of this section appear to be 
better adapted to the production of some kinds of vegetables and fruits 
than even the best localities of the western portion of the State, while 
the high prairies lying at the foot of the mountain ranges have been 
found to be unsurpassed for the production of wheat. , 

" Western Oregon is well timbered. This is particularly the case 
with the mountain and hilly region by which the three great valleys 
of this section are enclosed. Timbered lands in places convenient to 
towns or to navigation have frequently been made to bring a return of 
$250 per acre, realized from the timber alone — not only sufficient to 
put the land under cultivation, but paying a handsome profit besides. 
This kind of land, when brought under cultivation, yields excellent 
crops and is lasting in productiveness. 

" Oregon has an equability of climate unknown in like latitudes on 
the Atlantic seaboard. Situated in the latitude of Canada and Ver- 
mont, it has a summer cooler than that of Quebec and a winter as 
warm as that of Norfolk, with neither the bitter frosts of the one place 
nor the burning heat of the other. The ocean winds temper the cli- 
mate to a remarkable salubrity. Cattle live and fatten in the open 






ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 83 

fields and prairies during the whole winter. At Portland, on the 
forty-sixth parallel of north latitude, flowers bloomed and flourished 
In the open air during every month of the past year. 

'• The Cascade range of mountains divides the State into eastern and 
western divisions, each division having its own distinct climatic pecu- 
liarities. The western part, lying between the mountains and the 
sea, is Bupplied with abundant rains. But little snow falls, except on 
tho summits of the mountain range. Winter is short, mild and wet. 
Farm operations receive but little interruption from cold or freezing 
weather. Summer is mild and pleasant, with generally about two 
months dry weather in July and August. Excessive heat or severe 
and protracted drought is unknown. 

" Eastern Oregon has a dry climate, with a winter quite cold, but 
short and dry. The snow-fall is light, except on the highest ranges 
of hills; in the valleys there is frequently none at all. Stock-raisers 
usually graze their stock on the open prairies the year round. Abun- 
dant rains fall in spring and autumn. Summer is warm and dry, with- 
out the excessive summer heat incident to most dry climates. A fresh 
mountain air circulates with freedom over the table land and prairies, 
and not only neutralizes the effect of the summer heat, but dispels 
every tendency towards malarious diseases. 

" The healthfulness of the climate of all parts of the State is a fact 
attested by all persons familiar with the subject. On this point there 
has never been any difference of opinion. Violent tornadoes, hail 
storms, earthquakes, and like phenomena, so common in some parts of 
the world, are unknown in the history of the country. 

" The following table, compiled from the reports of the Smithsonian 
Institute, shows the mean temperature, for a series of years, of three 
important points in the State : Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia 
River ; Corvallis, in the centre of the Willamette Valley ; and Dalles 
City, at the eastern base of the Cascade range of mountains : 

Astoria. Corvallis. Dalles. 

Xumber of years of observation 11.5 11.8 

Mean Spring temperature "»1 . 16 52.19 53.00 

Mean Summer temperature 61.36 67.13 70.36 

Me.in Autumn temperature 53.85 53.41 82.21 

Mean Winter temperature 12.4:1 39.27 35.59 

Mean temperature whole time 52. 13 53.00 52.79 

" From McCormick'a Almanac for 1870, published at Portland, it is 
ascertained that during the year ending August 31, 18G9, there were, 
in the Willamette Valley, 42 rainy days, To showery days, 2o0 days 
clear, dry weather, 103 rainy nights, and 362 dry nights. 

"Public lands are to be obtained in nearly all parts of the State. A 
citizen of the United States, or foreigner declaring his intention to 
become such, can locate them under the homestead laws, and, by 
occupation and cultivation for five years, acquire a title free of cost. 
Public lands can also be obtained by purchase at $1.25 per acre. 
Eastern Oregon has millions of acres of lands subject to settlement — 
a great deal of it public land of the best quality. In the western part 
of the State, also, are several large tracts still vacant. One valley 
lying in Clatsop and Tillamook Counties would afford homes for five 
hundred families. 



84 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



" Improved farms may be bought at from five to twenty dollars per 
acre. Immigrants short of means rarely have any trouble in renting 
farms, with stock, seed and implements furnished, giving a share of 
their product for their use. 

" The highly productive nature of the soil renders the country capa- 
ble of sustaining a population vastly in excess of the present number 
of inhabitants. The Willamette Valley alone has the capacity to sup- 
port a million inhabitants. Its present population does not exceed 
80,000. 

" Oregon has two large navigable rivers. The Columbia forms the 
northern boundary of the State, and is navigable at all seasons of the 
year for sea-going vessels, one hundred miles from its mouth. Regu- 
larly established lines of river steamers ply its upper waters to points 
350 miles distant from the ocean, affording facilities for travel and 
traffic to Eastern Oregon and the Territories of Washington, Idaho and 
Montana. The Willamette River, flowing through the centre of the 
valley of that name, is the chief artery of trade and travel for that 
region. It empties into the Columbia River about 100 miles from the 
sea, and is navigable for ocean steamships and sailing vessels to Port- 
land, twelve miles from its mouth. Above Portland, the Willamette 
is navigable to the head of the valley, a distance of 150 miles, afford- 
ing a safe and quick mode of transportation for the products of the 
largest agricultural district in the State. The State is traversed from 
north to south by a great public highway, connecting Portland with 
the Sacramento Valley, in California, and passing through the Wil- 
lamette, Umpqua and Rogue River Valleys their entire length. A 
line of stages carrying the United States mails passes over the road 
twice every day in the year. A daily line of mail coaches connects 
Umatilla, on the Upper Columbia, with the Pacific Railroad at Kelton, 
in Utah, passing through Northeastern Oregon and Southwestern 
Idaho." 

The Oregon branch of the Central Pacific Railroad is already com- 
pleted to Soto, 95 miles from Junction, or 48 miles beyond Marysville. 
The connecting road at the Oregon end is completed from Portland to 
Salem, a distance of 50 miles, and both ends are being pushed rap- 
idly. The lands on the course of the railroad will become most valu- 
able, and the completion of the road will lead to the rapid settling up 
of both Northern California and Oregon. 

" Extensive beds of iron ore have been found in Clatsop, Columbia, 
Multnomah and Clackamas Counties, in the northwestern part of the 
State. One of them has been opened at Oswego, six miles south of 
Portland, and furnaces erected for smelting. The iron produced is of 
excellent quality. It enters into general use with the different foun- 
dries in the State, and has been shipped to San Francisco in large 
quantities. Examinations made of similar deposits in the same and 
adjoining counties prove them to be inexhaustible in extent. 

" In Coos County, on the coast, veins of coal have been extensively 
worked for a number of years. Coal has been found in large quanti- 
ties in Clackamas, Clatsop, Columbia, Douglas and Jackson Counties. 



AI.TA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 86 



Extensive copper minis have been discovered in Josephine County, in 
the southern part of the State. 

" Placer mines are being worked for gold in Jackson, Josephine and 
Douglas Counties, in the southern part of the State, and Grant and 
Baker Counties, in Eastern Oregon. Those of Southern Oregon were 
opened as early as 18o0, and have not only afforded employment to a 
great many men, but have yielded immense sums of the precious 
metals. They are still being regularly and profitably worked. The 
placers of Eastern Oregon have been worked continuously since 18G1, 
and are still yielding rich returns to the industrious miner. They are 
sufficiently extensive to afford employment to a large number of 
people for many years to come. 

" The annual product of the gold placers of the State is estimated at 
$2,000,000 by those whose business enables them to form a correct 
opinion on the subject. 

" In the various branches of manufacturing industry, Oregon has 
barely made a commencement. Combining a soil of unrivalled fertil- 
ity with great resources of timber, iron ore and coal, with water power 
in all parts of the State, her capabilities in this particular are practi- 
cally without limit. Six woolen mills are in operation in different 
sections of the State, manufacturing woolen goods of superior quality, 
at prices which place them in general use with the people, forcing out 
of the home market a great many imported articles. One of them, 
located at Salem, consumes from 2.1,000 to 30,000 pound of wool per 
month, and furnishes employment regularly for about one hundred 
persons. 

" An oil mill is in operation at Salem, and a paper mill near Oregon 
City. There are several iron foundries and machine shops at Port- 
land, and two or three at other points. They have facilities for the 
manufacture of all kindsof castings and machinery necessary to Bupply 
the wants of the people. Flouring mills of large capacity, located in 
the wheat growing districts, manufacture Hour that finds its way into 
the principal markets of the world. It is Bought alter in foreign mar- 
kets as being of superior quality, commanding the highest prices. 

"Many parts of the State are covered with a dense growth of tim- 
ber. This is particularly the case with the mountain range near ihe 
coast and the foot-hills of the Cascade Mountains. The varieties are 
fir, cedar, spruce, pine, hemlock and redwood, as well as several varie- 
ties of hard wood — oak, ash, maple, etc. The different varieties of fir, 
cedar, spruce and hemlock furnish material for extensive lumbering 
establishments. The timber is of the finest quality. The trees grow 
straight and tall ; a height of 230 feet is not uncommon. Abundant 
water power in most places affords facilities for converting the timber 
into lumber, and superior facilities for shipping renders tbe commod- 
ity always marketable. Oregon has supplied the San Francisco mar- 
ket almost exclusively for many years with c art tin kin \s of lumber. 
Lumber, timber and snips' spars arc exported to the Sau iwich Islands, 
South America, Mexico and China. From tables taken from the 
Portland Directory, for the year 1868, it appears that the value of 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



lumber shipped from, the Columbia River alone during- that year 
amounted to an aggregate of nearly $900,000. The shipments from 
other points on the coast south of the Columbia would probably 
amount to as much more. 

"Among the natural resources of the State awaiting development, 
the salmon fisheries of the Columbia River assume an important part. 
Until recently, they claimed but little attention from capitalists and 
business men. "Within the last three or four years, however, the 
business has grown into importance, and now employs a capital of sev- 
eral hundred thousand dollars, and during the fishing season affords 
employment to a large number of men. The business of cooking and 
canning the salmon ready for use has grown to be a large and profit- 
able one. The cans of cooked fish, containing one and two pounds 
each, are packed in cases for shipment, and find a market in San 
Francisco, New York and other large markets. Three of the canning 
companies, in the prosecution of their business, used revenue stamps 
to the amount of $10,000 during the past year. " The Statistics of 
Oregon," a pamphlet published by authority of the State Agricultural 
Society, estimates, upon the authority of a gentleman largely inter- 
ested in the fisheries, the total value of the catch for the current year 
at $270,000. 

" For the year 1868 the shipments of salmon from Portland amounted 
to an aggregate as follows : 2,080 barrels, 4,433 half barrels, 4,991 
cases and "1,554 packages. During the first nine months of 1869 there 
were shipped 15,000 cases. 

" Portland, the commercial capital of Oregon, is also the commercial 
depot whence the people of a region larger than New England and 
the Middle States combined derive their supplies, including a large 
portion of the Territories of Washington, Idaho and Montana. The 
city is situated on the west bank of the Willamette River, twelve 
miles from its mouth. It contains a population of about 10,000 inhab- 
itants, is substantially built, has well graded and well improved 
streets, good wharves and warehouses, and is well supplied with water 
and gas. According to the Directory for 1869, there are in Portland 
forty-four attorneys, one assay office, two architects, three dealers in 
agricultural implements, four banking houses, three dealers in station- 
ery, nine dealers in boots and shoes, six bakeries, three bag factories, 
nine commission merchants, five clothing dealers, four crockery deal- 
ers, eleven tobacco dealers, seven drug stores, five foundries, seven 
furniture dealers, thirty-two dealers in groceries and provisions, four 
hardware stores, fourteen hotels, nine livery stables, twenty-seven 
retail dry goods stores, nine wholesale dry goods stores, three produce 
dealers, three daily newspapers, seven real estate agents, two railroad 
companies, six stove and tinware stores, four wagon and carriage 
makers, and a variety of other business houses — only the most 
important being enumerated here. 

" The Willamette River is navigable to Portland at all seasons for 
sea-going vessels. A line of first-class ocean steamships runs regularly 
between Portland and San Francisco, making three trips per month ; 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 87 



an I another lino communicates regularly with Victoria, on Vancouver 
Island, and the different towns on Paget Sound. Portland, by m ana 

of sailing vessels, enjoys direct trade with New York, Liverpool, the 
Sandwich Islands and China, affording advantages lor the importation 
of foreign merchandise and for the exportation to distant markets of 
Oregon produce. 

"According to the Portland Directory for 1869, the total value of 
produce shipped from Portland during the year 18G8 amounted to 
$3,780,000. The amount of bullion shipped to San Francisco for the 
same period was §3,077,830." 



STATISTICS OF THE BUSINESS AND SOCIAL AF- 
FAIRS OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



The number of vessels which arrive annually at San Francisco is 
about three thousand four hundred. In the value of foreign merchan- 
dise imported, San Francisco ranks next to Now York and Boston, 
surpassing Philadelphia, Baltimore and New Orleans. The annual 
export of treasure, including the silver of Nevada, is $10,000,000, and 
of merchandise produced on the coast, $23,000,000. Among the mer- 
chandise exports of 1809 were the following values : Wheat, $8,734,348 ; 
flour, 82,038,019 ; wool, $3,370,165 ; quicksilver, §7-17,071; furs, etc., 
$635,533; hides, $371,346; leather, J?'31G,9GG ; copper ore, §117,133; 
wine, §490,023; barley, $338,788; mustard seed, $44,369; salmon 
§189,357; brandy, §209,010; potatoes, $39,893 ; tallow, §9,703; bread, 
$34,083; beans, §12,022; borax, §321; abelones, $5,435 ; oats, §43,280 ; 
silver ores, §133,298; bran, §8,700; and brooms, §0,873. The annual 
exports of California arc §109 to the person : while the exports ol the 
United States are about $10, and of Great Britain about $20 to the 
person. The annual imports of California are about §00,000.000. The 
Banks, Savings Banks, Insurance Companies, Gas Company .Water Com- 
pany, State Telegraph Company. Steam Navigation Company, and 
Street Railroad Companies, of San Francisco, together payout about 
$5,000,000 annually of dividends. There are ten Savings Banks, which 
have together §27,000.000 on deposit, and pay from nine t > twelve per 
cent, per annum interest to the depositors. There are 30,000 dej 
in the Savings Banks. There are five thousand landholders. The 
amount of gold and silver coined annually in the San Francisco Mint 
is about §17,009,090. The prosperity of California is implied by the 
taxes paid. The assessed value of property is §247,000,090, and the 
average rate of assessment is about one-fourth of the market value, 
so that the total true value is §938,000,000. or §1.040 to each of the 
000,000 inhabitants. The assessed value of San Francisco property is 
$104,000,090, mere than two-fifths of that of the entire State, of which 
it has about one-fourth of the inhabitants. There are 1G religious socie- 
ties, and nearly 80 benefit and benevolent societies. We have a Home 
for the Inebriates, seven Temperance Societies with various titles, and 
over three dozen societies organized for social purposes. The churches 
aud public schools will be found mentioned in another place. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



THE MANUFACTORIES OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



From the annual report of Levi Rosener, Assessor of this City and 
County, for the year ending June 30th, 1870, we compile the following 
statistics : 

ASSESSMENT ROLLS. 

The Assessment Roll of Personal Property for the current fiscal year 
amounts to $29,587,989. For the year previous it amounts to $30,779,294. 
The decrease In the amount from last year is owing to the non-assessment 
of mortgages to the insurance companies, stricken off by the Board of 
Equalization. Valuation of property contained on the Real Estate Roll 
amounts to about $72,500,000. 

Manufactories. 

Following are extracts of the Report of Manufactories and Mechanical 
Industries of this county: 

Axle Grease Manufactories.— Manufactories, 3: men employed, 11; rosin 
useil, barrels, 1,200; butter used, pounds, 12,000; tallow oil made, gallons, 
18,000; parafine oil made, gallons, 5,000: aggregate value of manufactures, 
$48,200. 

Billiard Table Manufactories. — Manufactories, 3; men employed, 35; 
tables made, 144; average value of each table, $450; aggregate value of 
manufactures, $86,000. 

Bellows Manufactory. — Manufactory, 1; men employed, 6; steam engine 
(horse power) 5; value of manufactures, $15,000. 

Box Manufactories.— Manufactories, 9: men employed, 218; lumber used 
(pine, fir and spruce), 6,400,000 ; lumber used (Spanish Cedar), 500,000; 
straw boards used, 52 ; steam engines (horse power), 180; aggregate value 
of manufactures, $356,000. 

Brass Foundries.— Manufactories, 5; men employed, 8i; metal used an- 
nually (pounds), 525,000; steam engines (horse-power), 42; value of manu- 
factures, $177,000. 

Braveries.— Manufactories, 28; men employed, 212; beer made (barrels), 
140,700. 

Broom Manufactories.— Manufactories, 5; men employed, 35; brooms 
made annually (dozen), 30,380; brushes and whips made annually (dozen), 
4,200; broom corn used annually (tons), 325; aggregate value of manu- 
factures, $110,800. 

Boot and Shoe Manufactories.— Manufactories, 9; men and women em- 
ployed, 66'J; sides of sole leather used annually, 79,197; calf, kid, goat, kip, 
and other skins used annually (dozen), 4,623; serges canvas, and cloth 
linings used annually (yards), 33,000; aggregate value of manufactures, 
$662,259. 

Candle Manufactory. — Manufactory, 1; men employed, 18; candles 
made (boxes), 15,000; capacity of works per year (boxes), 75,000. 

Cordage and Rope Manufactory.— Manufactory, 1 ; men employed, 50; 
hemp ropes manufactured (tons), 1,500; capacity of works per year (tons), 
1,750; horse power of steam engine, 150 ; value of manufactures, $450,C00. 

Carriage and Wagon Manufactories.— Manufactories, 10 ; men employed, 
355; carriages, wagons and o'ther vehicles made per year, 2,044; railroad 
cars made per year, 70; horse power of steam engines used, 100; aggregate 
value of manufactures, $713,150. 

Chemical Works.— Works, 4 ; men employed, 30; nitrate of soda used 
(tons), 250; sulphur consumed (tons), 450; sulphuric and nitric acid (tons), 
650; capacity of works per day, sulphuric acid (tons), 10; nitric acid, 3; 
sulphate of copper made (tons), 250. 

Cooper and Barrel Manufactories,— Manufactories, 2; men employed, 43; 
barrels made per year, 73,000 ; half barrels made per year, 7,000 ; kegs, 
8,000; capacity of works per year (barrels), 118,000; horse power of engines, 
30; barrels made by sugar refineries, 90,000; half barrels made by sugar 
refineries, 70,000; syrup kegs made by sugar refineries, 74,500; syrup kegs 
made by tub and pail factories, 63,000. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Coffee and Spice Mills.— ~Sl\\\s,~\ men employed, 55; coffee ground [and 
roasted per year (pounds), 1,280,0 0; chocolate made pc>r vear (pounds , 
80,500: spices ground and put up per year (pounds), 125,200 ; spier-, 
ground aud put up in cases, 5.5J2 ; horse power of steam engines, 77 ; 
aggregate value of manufactures, $592,000. 

Cigar Manufactories. — Manufactories, 03; men employed, 1.507; cigars 
made, 3S 4l4,0o"0; clgarltoa made, 138.500: nvmthlv capacity, 4.152,200. 

I> IsttUeriea.— Works, 3; men employed, 35; proof gallons of liquor made, 
743,843; average amount of horse power of engines, 150. 

Dm Docks.— Ways, 2; men employed, G; capacity of ways (vessels), 
tons, 800. 

Floating Dock.— California Dry Dock Company, 1.— Length of dock (feet), 
21"; width of dock (feet), 82; capacity of dock (vessels) tons, 1,830. 

Stone Dry Dock, 1— Length of excavation iu solid rock (feet), 430; width 
at top (feet) 120; depth (feet) ^>0; width at entrance (feet), 90; capacltyof 
dock lor vessels (length, feet), 425; capacity of dock lor drawing (feet i, 22; 
capacity of pumps for cleaning dock, per hour, (cubic feet), 325,308; tubu- 
lar boilers, of 4-iuch tubes, 4 ; dimensions of each boiler, length (feet), 10; 
diameter (inches), 25: Are surface of boilers (square feet), 8,800; number of 
men employed. 2-5; total cost ot work, $075,000. 

Flouring Mills.— Mills, 12; men employed, 150 ; flour made (barrels), 
460,025; hominy made (tons), 290; buckwheat aud rye flour (tons), 287; feed 
barley (tons)G,190; oatmeal and groats (tons), 07; corn mcal(tous\72; p.-arl 
barley (tons), 08; farina (tons), 13; aggregate daily capacity of mills (tons), 
329; run of stones, 58; horse power of engines, 895. 

Furniture Manufactories. — Manufactories, 11; men employed, 251; lum- 
ber (walnut, pine, rosewood, mahogany), used (feet), 5,000,000; value of 
manufactures (as far as reported), 8275 000; horse powerof engines, 181. 

Gas Mister Manufactory. — Manufactory, 1; men employed, 5; vuiuc of 
manufactures, 84,000. 

Glass Cult in'/ and Staining Works.— Works. 2 ; men employed, 9; valuo 
of manufactures (cutting and staining), $9,500. 

Glue Manufactory .—Factory \\ men employed, 10; glue made (tons), 
500; neatsfoot oil made (galls.), 5,000 ; curled hair made (pounds), 20,000; 
capacity for glue daily (tons), 30; capacity foroil daily (galls), 20). 

Glass Works.— Works, 1; men employed, 50; furnaces, 1; pots, 8; valuo 
of manufactures, §125,000. 

Glove Mmujactory. -Factory, 1; men and women employed, 20; gloves 
made per mouth (dozen), 123; m' j n employed tanning buckskius, 5; buck- 
skins tanned monthly (d >z sn), 0\ 

Hat and C ip Mint/factories.— Factories, 9; men and women employed, 
28; aggregate vaucor mauufac ures, $.33 830. 

Horse dollar Manufactories.— FacborleB, 3; men employed, 135 ; horso 
collars made (dozen) 7,;30; leather used (feet), 590,000; rye stocks and 
flocks (tons), 225; value of manufactures, S100,000. 

Hose and Belting Manufactories.— Factories L'; men employed, 14; hose 
made (feel ), 11,000'; belting made (feat), 153,000; sides of leather and hides 
used, 40,000; va'ue of manufactures, S 12,000. 

Iron Foundries and Boiler Shops— •Works, 15; men employed, 953 : pig 
iron used (tons), 6,420; bar iron used ( ons), 514; sheet and boiler iron us-d 
(tons) 481: rive.; hon (tons), 04; horse-power of steam engines, 451. 

Iron Doors, S7iutter and Safe Shops.— Woiks, 5; men employed, 71; 
sheet iron used (tons), 100; bar iron used, tons, 130; cast iron used (tons), 
12; cast steel used (tons), l'4; horse power of steam eugines, 32. 

Ink Manufactory.— Factory, 1: men employed, G; ink made (gallons), 
6,000; value of manufactures. $10,000. 

Lead and Shot Works. — Works, 1; men employed, 14; leal manufac- 
tured (tons), 9,00); suot manufacrured (tons), 3)0; capacity of works per 
year (c-ms>. 2.0 )0: horse p >wer of steam engines, not rep >rtcd. 

Leadand Oil Works.— W«"»rks, 2; men employed, 20; flaxsee 1 used (tons), 
2.350; oil made (gallons), 375,000; eapa ity for oil per year (gallons), 425.000; 
horse power of steam • ugiues, 4-5. 

Last Manufactory.— Factory, I: men employed, 10; laurel blocks used, 
30,003; capacity of works per week, lasts (dozen), 23; horse power of steam 
engines. 5. 



90 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Maccaroni Manufactories.— Factories, 2; men employed, 20; maccaroni 
and paste put up "(boxes), 51,000; maccaroni wheat used (-acks), 8,000; 
runs of stone, 2; hor,o power of steam engines, 25; capacity of works 
(.boxes), 62 000; value of manufactures, §43,500. 

Match Manufactories.— Factories, 5; men employed, 50; matches made 
(gross), 100 009. 

Malt Houses.— Works, 7; men employed, 28; grain malted (pounds), 
9,071,115; malt made (pounds), 7,250,892; horse power of steam engines, . 3. 

Mirror Silvering Works.— Works, 1; men employed, 5; silvering tables, 4; 
value of manufactures, §20,000. 

Piano- Forte Manufactory.— Factory, 1; men employed, G; pianos made, 
17; average value of each instrument, $475. 

Pyrotechnic Works.— Works, 1; men employed, 5; value of manufac- 
tures, $s,ooo. 

Powder Works.— Works, 1 ; men employed, 12 ; giant powder made 
monthly (pounds), 10 : 000; value of manufactures, §120,000. 

Pickle and Fruit Preserving Works.— Works reported, 8; men employed, 
214; pickJes put up (gallons) 29,000; pickles, fruits and meats (dozen), 
167,000; fruits, etc., used bv one work, as reported (pounds), 3,000,000; 
value of manufactures, §75,000. 

Rolling Mills.— Mills, 1; men employed, 115; railroad iron produced 
(ton=!), 750; coal used (tons), 3,000; capacity of production (tons), 9,000; 
horse power of steam engines, 300. 

Salt Mills.— Mills, 3; men emploved,33; domestic salt ground (tons), 
9,000; foreign salt ground (tons), 3,000; run of stones, 7; horse power of 
engines, 50; value of manufactures, §300,000. 

Saw and Saiv-Teeth Manufactories. — Works, 2; men employed, 45; steel 
used Annually (tons), 53; capacity of works (value), $110000; actual value 
of manufactures, 880.000; horse power of steam engine, 25. 

Saw Mills and Sash and Door Manufactories.— -Mills and Factories (as 
reported), 10; men employed, 523; lumber sawed, planed and used up 
(feet), 34,040,(100; value of manufactures (as reported), §1,125,000; run of 
saws, 25; horse power of steam engines, 5~0. 

Sunar Refineries.— Refineries (reported only), 2; men employed. 225; raw 
sugar used (pounds), 30,610,321; refined sugar made (pounds), 25,016,786; 
Sandwich Island molasses, refined (gallons), £7,315; syrup made (gallons), 
2,825,771; capacity of works per day (pounds), 220,000; average value of 
both woras, §3,393.943; horse power of steam engine 450. 

Slipper Manufactories. — Manufactories, 6; men employed, 95; sole 
leather used (sides), 1,6:0; value of manufactures, $10,000. 

Soap Manufactories. — Works, 14; men employed, GO; soap made 
(pound-). 5,194,475; washing powder made (pounds), 950,000; value of soap 
made, $109 000. 

Steam Marble Works. — Works, 1; men employed, 25; horse power of 
steam engine, 20; run of saws, 1. 

Tanneries.— Works, 13; hides tanned of all kinds, 44,500; bark used 
(e axis), 1,600; horse power of stearn engines used infive,75; value of bark, 
$21,000; aggregate value of manufactures, $300,000. 

Tool and File Manufactories.— -Factories, G; men employed, 49; steel 
used, cast and shee 1 , (tons), 150; bar iron (ton*), 5; horse power of steam 
engines, 27; value of manufactures, §55,700. 

TrunJc Manufactories.— Factories, 5; men employed, 67; value of man- 
ufacture.?, §109.000. 

Type Foundries.— Foundries, 3; men, women and boys employed, 50; 
value of manufactures, $70,682; capacity of works, §145,000. 

Tub, PHI and Wooden -Ware Manufactories. — Factories, 8; men em- 
ployed, G8; lumber used— sugar-pine, cedar, maple, etc.— (cords), 4,500 ; 
pails made (dozen), 5,584; tubs made (nests of three), 5,000; tubs made 
(nests of eisrbt), 500; tubs (single), 18,000; wash-boards— zinc and wood— 
(dozen), 4.900; broom handles made, 492,000; hand hayracks (dozen), 2:0; 
curtain rollers, 30,000; sieves plated and wire (dozen), 12,000; barrel and 
hall-barrel covers ( ozen ,400; fish kettles, 3.000; butter firkins, 1,000; salt 
boxes (dozen), 500; butter mould; (dozen), 300; cheese safes (dozen), 200; 
peach baskets (doz-m), 200; churns and cylinders (single), 150; horse 
power of steam engines, 175. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 91 



Vinegar Manufactories.— Factories, 3; men emnloved, 12; vinegar made 
(gallon-), .W.OOO; capacity of works (gallons), WJS.OiK); value Of manufac- 
tures «7l>000. 

Wire Work Manufactories.— Factories, 3 ; men employed, 21; value of 
manufactured, $24,000. 

Woolen MUl-,. — Mills (no report from Pioneer Woolen Mills), 1 ; men, i 
women and Chinese employed, 425; Bpring males and jacks, 24; card I , 
90; powr looms, 60; frames/ r knltt.*ng underwear, 10: rramesfor knit- 
ling hosiery, 23; spindles, io.ooO; blankets made, 48 600; broadcloth, cassi- 
iii is and tweeds (yards), joo. ink); knit flannel shirts and drawers (dozen I, 
3,000; wool hosiery (dozen),6000; Bannc Is made (ynrds), 850,000; wool used, 
(pounds), i." (MX)'; horse power of steam engines. 275. 

Whale Oil Work .—Works, 1; men employed, .". ; oil made per month 
(gallons), 2,000; capacity per month (gallons)) 6,o00; presses for spermaceti, 
2; bleacbeisand strainers. 2. 

/',</■/< r Works.— Works, l ; men employed, 14 ; yeast powders 
made (gross), 250; cream of tartar (pounds), 10,(<00; soda (pounds), 7.000; 
BaleratUS (pounds), 7,000; aggregate value of manufactures, §7,000. 



MINERAL RESOURCES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 



The agricultural resources of Southern California are too well known 
to Deed recapitulation hero, but the mineral resources are only now 
beginning to be understood ; and yet it is not too much to Bay that 
Mexico, in its mrst palmy days, had nothing better to offer than some 
of the recently-discovered mints in San Bernardino, bordering on 
Nevada and Arizona. Wo have the best reason for stating that from 
one ledge of coppery silver glance, in Clarke District (a very exceptional j 
case, wo are ready to admit), there are ores which lave assayed as 
high as from $3,000 to sS.000 per ton. Picked samples have yielded 
at the rate of the almost incredible amount of $17,000 per ton. Ten 
working tests, made by Ilowland, of ores from mines belonging to the 
Piute Company, of this city, cave the following results per ton : 
$1,821, $1,580, $3,860, $943, $1,119, $1,339, $711, $1,866, $306, The 
Piute Company is now constantly in receipt of large shipments of 
these ores, and, even at the present high rate of freighting, it will pay, 
of course, to bring up these rich ores. We shall yet hear much of 
Yellow Pino and Clarke District. 

The discovery of these mines in the first instance is almost entirely 
due to Captain John Moss, a man whose life has been throughout a 
veritable romance. Moss first came to the Pacific Coast as a ship- 
master, in 1845. Tired of the sea, he joined a company of trappers, 
and for several years wandered in the interior among the Indians cf 
some twenty-three tribes, the dialects of which he had a peculiar facil- 
ity for acquiring. In a few seasons he had amassed a considerable 
fortune in the fur trade, when a dishonest partner absconded, leaving 
him nearly penniless. The spirit of John Moss was not to be discour- 
aged by trifles of this kind, and after a visit to Pan Francisco in 1850, 
where he received some assistance from a friend, ho re-embarked in 
the fur trade, to find the business overdone by competition. We next 
hear of him in Sonora, wdiere he leased and successfully worked a 
silver mine ; but here again fortune was liardlv kind to him, for he 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



became entangled in a political revolution, and was eventually forced 
to abandon the country. Arizona (then Mexican territory) was the 
nest scene of his enterprise, and he may fairly claim the title of pio- 
neer of that country. His influence over the Indians was, and is, 
something immense. This is partly due to the fact that he ever 
proved himeelf their friend, and could beat them on their own ground, 
that is, excelled as a hunter and sportsman, and in athletic games and 
races among them always came out victor. He has passed through 
so many hairbreadth escapes and dangers that he is universally known 
by the Indians as Narragitinep (the " Never Die"). During the late 
war he was Indian Agent in Arizona. The Southern Piute 
Indians of San Bernardino County, Southern California, had long been 
hostile to the whites, till in April, 1869, Moss went alone among them, 
called their chiefs in council, and laid before them the benefits of peace. 
How well he must have reasoned is shown by the events which fol- 
lowed. The Indians burned all their munitions of war, including 
some three thousand arrows and clubs. The treaty was subsequently 
ratified and confirmed by the commanding officer at Fort Mojave. 
Moss and a band of prospectors were then allowed to travel through 
the country, and the Indians voluntarily pointed out to them many of 
the argentiferous ledges from which they obtained the metal for their 
bullets. This is nothing extraordinary : the Indians of Queen Char- 
lotte's Island, British Columbia, are said to frequently use golden 
bullets, and the same has been stated with regard to the Apaches of 
Arizona. The Piutes also showed him many veins of copper ore, from 
which they obtained the material for ornaments. 

Some incidents in the life of this remarkable man are of general 
interest. Every one has heard of his perilous trip on a raft through 
the canons of the Colorado — a journey Moss himself would hardly care 
to repeat. In 1854 he was prospecting among the mountains that 
flank the Amargosa, and, unacquainted with the country and the regu- 
lar watering-places, had been forty-eight hours without water. Scan- 
ning the horizon, he saw in the far distance a camp-fire, and urged his 
horse towards it. As he approached he discovered that it was the 
halting-place of a band of Indians, whose dresses and paint proved 
them to be out on the war-path, and with whom ho had no previous 
acquaintance. Hungry, and nearly dying from thirst, he resolved to 
address them boldly, knowing that his chances of life were about equal 
in either direction. He saluted them ; the chief consulted with his 
band, and he had the satisfaction of hearing that it was a toss-up 
whether they should kill and eat his horse and turn him out to die on 
the arid plain, or, as their leader more mercifully proposed, kill him 
at once. Moss saw that they did ftot recognize him, and commenced 
to talk to them in their own manner, somewhat as follows : " I am 
Narraguinep. Have you not heard that I cannot be killed ? Mount- 
ain sheep is better to eat than horse : where are your hunters ? " He 
then proposed that they should keep his horse, and that if they did 
not hear the report of his gun among the neighboring peaks before 
the sun set, they should be at liberty to kill and eat his horse. They 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. ft 

consented; he toiled up the mountain sides, and before he himself 
expected to be bo fortunate, he found himself among a berd of mount- 
ain sheep, and Bucceeded in Bhooting three before they got oat of 
range 'i'lie Indians bad been unlucky for weeks in hunting, and it is 
- to say that after this episode they nearly worshiped him. 

In 1805 Captain Moss 1 iok Irataba (a celebrated chief of the M I 
to Washington. Both were considerably lionized, and the rod man 
had an interview with President Lincoln. Irataba was a fined 
native, over six feet high, and. as he stood up by the side of Lincoln, 
found himself considerably the taller man of the two. "You big 
Indian," said be to the President; "mo bigger." He subsequently 
told Lincoln that he was "no good — all the same squaw chief," 
because he had learnt that he did not take the head of the army in 
person, but directed the affairs of the nation — at home. The same 
Indian, when left alone for a few days in the Metropolitan Hotel, Now 
York, and told to order what he wanted, ran up a bill of $1,800, prin- 
cipally for wines and extras. This trip through the Eastern 
had, howev. r. a beneficial effect on him. When asked, on his return, 
by the council of his people, how many white men he had Been, " Tell 
mc," said he, " how many ants there arc between the Colorado and the 
Sierra Madro (mountains), and I will tell you how many men I have 
met." He told his tribe that peace was their safest course, and there 
has been peace ever since. 

Many will remember the story concerning a Piu^e chief, which went 
the rounds of the papers. Captain Moss had determined to bring a 
Piute to San Francisco and show him all the wonders of civilization. 
He succeeded in (jetting him to the San Francisco railroad depot, 
when, going to look aft r his baggage, the chief became suddenly 
demoralized at losing sight of his protector, and at the number of 
people, etc., and Btarte I on a bee-line for Arizona, very sensibly taking 
the railroad track for his route. He is said to have 'easily beaten an 
outgoing train — a fact which either says much for his physical powers 
or very little for the train. He was subsequently arrested at Visalia 
and restored to his protector, who was beginning to get nervous. as he 
would have to account for him to the tribe when he returned to the 
south. Captain Moss has made Indians and Indian affairs a perfect 
study, and has a standing among them rarely accorded before to any 
white man under similar circumstances. He is the Rajah Brookes of 
this coast. 

The mines of San Bernardino, although distant from San Francisco, 
are accessible. From Lr.s Angeles the distance is about 220 miles. 
There are two routes— that via San Bernardino and that by the Cuco- 
mungo Ranch and Mart in's. A road forty-three mile% in length has 
been opened from the navigable and navigated waters of the Colorado 
River (at Cottonwood Island) to the heart of the district, and it is of 
such an easy nature that traction engines could easily g ) over it. Wc 
have before alluded to the fact that some of the ores have becu shipped 
to San Francisco. We learn that one company will make a very 
heavy shipment by the Colorado on or about the 1st of February next. 



94 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



One of the ledges in Copper District is traceable for two miles. Smelt- 
ing works are to be constructed shortly on the spot. 

The country has a general elevation of about 3,000 feet, intersected 
by mountain ranges varying in height from 4,000 to 10,000 feet. 
Some of these mountains and. most of the hills are covered with a 
scattered growth of several varieties of pine, associated with other 
trees, many of which are from three to four feet in diameter. Among 
the more scrubby trees arc the nut-pine, mesquit and juniper, the two 
former supplying a nutritious nut, upon which the Indians can subsist 
during the winter, and the latter good timber and fuel. This nut is 
also used to feed stock, tipon which they thrive well. 

There is considerable fertile land in the valleys of Yellow Pine Dis- 
trict, upon which the Indians have from time immemorial been in the 
habit of raising corn, wheat and melons. All the cereals, as well as 
certain kinds of fruit and most vegetables, could also be successfully 
grown here. The productive character of the soil is further shown by 
the presence everywhere of a variety of native grasses, furnishing a 
never-failing pasturage. In many localities the best of hay can be cut 
in abundance; and for grazing purposes advantages are possessed 
equal to the most favored portions of California — stock requiring 
neither fodder nor shelter throughout the year. Wild animals, such as 
deer, mountain sheep, rabbit and hare, are abundant. In most of the 
deeper canons water flows at all times, and numerous springs are also 
met with, the water being invariably pure. Ample water power for 
the propulsion of machinery can be made available, within easy access 
to the best of timber. 

. The climate is equable, the thermometer rarely ranging above 80° 
or below 50°. The rainy season sets in about the middle of June, and 
continues to the first of September. During that period a good deal of 
rain falls, there being occasional showers throughout the rest of the 
year. Upon the higher mountains snow falls in the winter, lying for 
several months, and continuing all the year upon the northerly slopes 
of the more elevated peaks. No snow and but little ice is ever seen in 
the valleys. 

The probabilities are that the railroad will pass right through the 
heart of this district. Captain Wheeler, U. S. A., is now making a 
reconnoissance of the route for a railroad, which will probably connect 
the Central Pacific with the Thirty-fifth Parallel route. That gentle- 
man has faith in the prospects of finding an easy natural road. Under 
any circumstances, the great railroad of the future must pass within a 
reasonable distance of the district. 

It is impossible in the compass of a brief article like this, to make 
mention of the numerous more or less undeveloped districts of South- 
ern California, in any of which are undoubtedly rich. Among the 
developed mines none excel those of Cerro Gordo, which are situated 
close to Owen's Lake, Inyo County. The Union Mine, of that district, 
yields about 40 tons of lead per month, containing with it from $150 
to $170 worth of silver to the ton. These ores are regularly shipped 
to San Francisco, and we believe that ere long they will be but a drop 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMA 95 



in tlio bicket to tlio quantity which wL'l be sent here. Tho Cerro 
(iordo smelting works run turn out foar tons per day. I 
paramount importanco that smelting of argentiferous ores Bhonld be 

done on tho spot. The news from tho Julian Mines, of San Diego, is 
uncertain, but seems to be tolerably satisfactory. 



THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF SAN FRANCISCO. 

From the annual report of the Superintendent of the Public Schools 
of San Francisco for the year ending June 30th, 1870, we compile th i 
following statistics : 

Number of pupils enrolled, 23,152 ; increase over the previous year, 
2,~.;7 ; average number attending school, 10,371; increase over the 
previous year. 3,237. 

The average number of pupils attending school during the y 
16,371. and the current expense is (36 1,423.4 1. This amount di 
by tho average number belonging gives (33. 20 as the average tuition 
of pupils, attending 203 days — the entire year. 

The following is a comparative statement of all the children in the 
city under eighteen years of age, from 1859 to 18G5 inclusive. Since 
1865 the census has onlv been taken of children un ler the age of fif- 
teen. June, \.^:,\), 13,858 ; June, 18G0, 15,400; June, 1861, 30,933; 
June, 1863,33,044; June, 1863, 35,953 ; Juno, 1864, 30,4 0; Jun 
33,539; June, 180G, 30,675; Jane. 1867, 34,889 : June, 18G8, 3 
June, 1869, 41,488; June. 1870, 45/117. 

The attendance during the last year has been more general and, 
regular than during any previous period in the history of our Public 
Schools. According to tho reports of the Census Marshals tho whole 
number of children in the city between six and fifteen years — the legal 
age to attend school — is 24,879 ; the whole number of children attend- 
ing school a longer or a shorter period of time was 22.152, which is an 
attendance of 8!) per cent, of all the children in the city of the legal 
age to attend school. The average number of children belonging to 
the schools is 10,371, which is a general average attendance of GG 
per cent. This shows a better percentage of attendance at our Public 
Schools than is reported in any other city of the country. 



BIRTHS AND DEATHS, ETC 

During the year ending June 30th, 1S70, there were reported 76G 
births ; 36 premature births, and 237 still births. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1S70. there were 3,243 
deaths in the city of San Francisco ; of this numb t 3,506 died in the 
twelve wards of the city ; 600 died in the public institutions ; 104 died 
from casualties ; and 39 committed suicide ; 1879 were natives of the 
the United States ; and 1,364 were natives of foreign countries ; 2.9>9 
were white ; 220 copper ; and 34 black ; 1,697 were adults ; and 1,546 
were minors. 



96 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



The following is the appropriate percentage of deaths to the popu- 
lation : Mortality per day, 8 19-100 ; mortality per month, 249 ; mor- 
tality per year, 2,939 ; or per diem one in 1,706 ; per month one in 575 ; 
per year, one in 46 84-100. These figures it is believed will compare 
favorably with the mortuary statistics of any city in the world of equal 
population, and prove San Francisco to be a healthy city. 

The number of vessels boarded during the year by the Quarantine 
officer was 518 ; of which 302 were American ; 159 British ; 80 Ger- 
man ; 22 French ; 5 other nations. 



THE FUTURE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS OF 
CALIFORNIA. 

This is a wide subject — far too wide for the limits of a single article 
and we can only allude in the briefest shape to some productions 
which have in most cases been attempted experimentally and success- 
fully. The cultivation of that valuable fibre, the ramie, will in all 
probability become one of the leading minor interests of the State. A 
writer in the Alta states that at Hayward, in Alameda county, three 
thousand ramie plants are in full growth. The fibre from the mature 
plant proves to be fully equal to samples received from New Orleans. 
The climate of California is evidently well adapted to it ; and it will 
certainly produce two crops a year — say two thousand pounds of fibre to 
the acre, the market value of which is ten cents a pound. The plant is 
perennial, and its cultivation is easy, especially after the first year. 
Every root planted sends up a dozen stems, about the thickness of 
one's finger. By layering them down in the ground when ripe, with- 
out entirely separating them from the mother plant, a dozen new 
plants are obtained, without prejudice to another dozen of stems 
which the parent root sends up as a second growth. In Louisiana 
they gather three crops a year, and with irrigation we may do it here. 
Till lately there was no economic way to dress the fibre. Now there 
is a complete machine for the purpose, which costs $350 and makes 
400 pounds of clean fibre per day. The refuse is of great bulk. It is 
returned to the soil, which it amply manures. Ramie furnishes a fine 
fibre of great strength. It interweaves equally well with silk and 
wool, and ib takes the dye as well. The cloth is known as stuff-goods ; 
and Lt is remarkable for two things, viz : long wear and perpetual 
gloss. Under the name of China grass, it has long been imported 
from Asia, and there is an unlimited demand. 

The culture of cotton will ere long receive decided attention. It has 
been stated on the best authority that it can be produced almost any- 
where in California ; that it can be raised much cheaper here than in 
what is known as the " Cotton Belt" of the South, and that our soil 
wiil yield more per acre. This has been fully tested by one enter- 
prising Californian. " The production of the Merced Valley, by test 
of Colonel Strong, was 1,650 pounds of seed, equal to 500 pounds of 
lint cotton per acre. This cotton was classified by the Board of Brokers 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAu. 97 

of Memphis, Tenn., and pronounced equal to the best Middling Up- 
land of the South, the Btaple being finer." 

Rain in summer, killing frosts and many other drawbacks affect the 
Southern planter. Colonel StroDg, who has now tried the third crop 
here says that he has as hue cotton as he ever saw, and he is a gentle- 
man perfectly an fait on the subject, having cultivated it of old in the 
Mississippi Valley. 

The production of silk in large quantities is an assured fact in the 
not very distant future. Already, our silk-worms' egg* have a world- 
wide reputation. The California Silk Culture Co., at Davisville, were 
thus complimented recently by a French gentleman experienced in the 
matter: "You have there a model establishment, on an excellent 
footing; your cocoons of the yellow variety arc very fine, and the but- 
terflies very vigorous. They will give you eggs of our best French 
race — which we are losing each day, and which in every possible way ] 
our silk raisers are striving tr> preserve. Your deposit of eggs this 
year has been very abundant, and they are of good appearance ; but I 
your butterflies have not always spread their eggs equally on the 
cards, which will be found to be very inconvenient. I attribute this 
to the very excellent nourishment which the worms have received 
during their education, for the females too heavy and full of eggs, are | 
too indolent to move about on the cards, and for the same reason, some i 
of their last laying have not been fecundated. I have seen a!so with i 
great interest, your reeled silk, which is strong, glossy and of (inn ; 
white color. This silk will rank with the fine Tsatlets and Mybach 
silks which are exported from China and Japan. 1 went through your , 
hundred acres of mulberry trees. They arc of the best kinds known — 
Multicaulis, Alba Moretti and grafted — all very vigorous, favored as ', 
they are by the alluvial soil on which they arc planted. This soil I 
bears a strong resemblance in black color and depth, to the very fertile 
land of lower Egypt. 

The number of mulberry plantations set out in the State, (mainly, ! 
it must be admitted, at one time for the purpose of securing the State 
bounty,) is very large. The thing has now been fairly tested : we ' 
have silk manufacturing companies already, and the future of the 
industry is full of promise. 

Of the culture of the Tea plant it is perhaps more difficult to speak. ! 
Herr Schuell's experiments near Placerville have been successful, and \ 
Californian tea has already been exhibited by the chest-full, 
branch ought to pay well with Chinese or Japanese labor. We under- ; 
stand that a Chinese firm contemplates some experiments in this : 
direction. 

As regards the production of beet sugar, everything is experimental : 
the prospects are, however, brilliant. The crop of beets to the acre is I 
larger than in probably any other country on the globe: some assert, 
moreover, that they are much richer in saccharine matter. Sugar 
works have been put up at Alvarado and Sacramento, and the industry 
will be fairly tested ere long. 

The culturo of cranberries will probably commence soon on our 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



=1 

i n rl en 



swamp and tulo lands. As tho crop is virtually novor failing, and so 
littlo care is required in tho culture it should be very profitable 
There is a variety which thrives on high dry soils. 

The drying of raisins, figs, and in short tho preservation of fruits 
generally, will command more and moro attention. Too little has 
boon done in this direction. In many districts, far from availablo 
markets, tho fruits rot on tho ground, and California can present per- 
haps tho only example of a country where peach-fed hogs are not 
rarities. Tho Eastern dried fruit establishments receivo moro orders 
than they can fill. Somo Californium dried fruits command larger 
prices in tho market than-thoso raised elsewhere. Women and chil- 
dren can easily perform most of tho processes connected with tho dry- 
ing, (or even tho canning of fruits.) In Franco much is done with 
hot-air ovens, but tho finest varieties, especially of raisins, arc sun- 
driod. 

Tho production of olive oil, already an industry, may likely enough 
become with us of as great importanco as it is in Italy, etc. Tho 
olive thrives magnificently in Southern California, and tho fruit could 
bo purchased this year for fifty cents a gallon, at which prico it would 
pay to press them for oil. The manufacture of castor oil has been 
commenced on a large scale. The Briggs Brothers have started a 
ste.im mill at Marysvillo, and havo raised this season (1870) about 
sixty tons of castor beans. Tho cnterpriso promises very well indeed, 
tho demand for tho oil being very steady. 

Wo havo heard recently, also, of a successful experiment in tho 
manufacture of Poppy Oil. 

Tho cultivation of tho Cinchona tree in California has been very 
strongly recommended by the American Medical Association. From 
tho bark of this trco, as every ono knows, quinine is produced. Tho 
successful introduction of this valuable treo into India, by tho British 
Government, is a matter of history. Tho memorial of the abovo named 
Society recommended tho appointment of a Commission of scientific 
men to determine tho best localities for its growth, " to determine what 
species may bo best transplanted," etc. Wo understand that tho State 
Board of Agriculture, and tho Sacramento Medical Society havo pledged 
themselves to assist such a movement. The nativo habitat of tho 
cinchona is in tho mountain region of South America, from 10 degrees 
north latitude to 20 dogrec3 south of tho equator, and tho most es- 
teemed kinds flourish whero there is a mean temperature of about 68 
degrees, but it has been successfully grown in Now Grenada at moro 
moderato temperatures, and whero tho night temperature occasionally 
went down to freezing. Dr. Antiscll, as far back as 1863, mentioned 
both the foothills of San Luis Obispo and San Diego, and also the lower 
slopes of tho Sierras, as probably suitablo localities. Immediately 
below tho altitude at which pines, etc., thrive, probably it will flourish. 
Hero is ono moro chanco for our mountain counties ; a successful ex- 
periment in this branch of culturo means fortune. 

It i3 perhaps not very generally known, that Tobacco is indigenous 
to California, and that fivo growors in tho San Jose"Valloy cultivate 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 90 



an aggregate of Boventy-four acres. Ono grower in Monterey Ins 

raised as many as 40,000 pounds in ono season— principally used for 
washing Bhecp. Neither arc many varieties which have been grown 
much, it' at all, inferior to the best grown elsewhere. 

We have merely indicated a few of the- more promising openings for 
the agriculturist or horticulturist of the future. Many Bubjccts nota- 
bly that of the culture of forest trees, a point which will bec 
great importance, wo have no space for. as an exhaustive article on the 
subject, however concisely written, would cover more paper than that 
in the present little work. But enough has been shown to prove the 
varied capabilities of our State. Some, indeed mos-t of the above 
named industries have been tried experimentally, but belong rather to 
the futuro than to tho uresent in the list of our resources. 



A Lecturer on " tho moral sentiments," in Philadelphia, remarked 
that "the dearest ship in the whole world was ' friendship* ;" where 
upon a young man rose from among the congregation, and stated that 
ho knew another, a dearer ship still, and that was courtship. Tho 
young man had once been defendant in a claim for breach of promise 
of marriage. 

A Seaside correspondent says that some four weeks ago, as an 
omnibus dashed up to one of tho Long Branch hotels, a lady's hat 
blew under tho wheels and was crushed. Her display of good naturo 
over the accident so struck an English lord that he sought an intro- 
duction, and they wero shortly engaged to be married, it is now 
stated that not an omnibus now drives up to a Long Branch hotel but 
that tho ground is so covered with hats that tho driver cannot get 
down until a small boy shovels them into a hand-cart. 



THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 

The great Trans-Continental Railroad, which binds ocean to ocean, 
has been extensively written up, and tho subjoined article has been 
indited with a practical view only. The bencGts accruing from tho 
completion of the road, and in fact of railroads in general, do not need 
to bo pointed out to tho American reader, who sees in them much of 
tho making of the States through which they pass. But this road is 
of moro or less interest to tho whole .world. Tho China business 
passing over it is already considerable : the Australian will be event- 
ually much greater ; in fact, tho whole Pacific will become moro or 
less subsidiary to it. The importanco of the Australian and Nov/ 
Zealand trade in particular cannoi be overestimated. The following 



100 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC: 



tables will show what it is worth, any business man will see that we 
can secure a large proportion of it, which must pass over the railroad. 

PASSAGE MONEY ACTUALLY PAID IN 1869. 

From Australia to San Francisco, $ 142.500. 

Honolulu to tjan Francisco 43,425 

Society Islands to San Francisco 2,342 

England and Australia, 5,544,000 

Total $5,732,267 

A large number of the passengers included in the first three lines, 
it will be understood, were bound for England, or vice versa, and for 
the East. 

IMPOETS TO "AUfcTKALIAN COLONIES IN 1869. 

.New South Wales, S 48,127,9.10 • 

Victoria 64.876,065 

Queenslanl 12.3)0,000 

South Australia 12.531,960 

Western Australia , 2,9i3.<!f2 

Tasmania 4.281,7^ 

New Zealand 35,123,8.0 

Total $180,205127 

Quite a large proportion of the above imports could be sent from 
the United States, as cheaply as from England from whence they were 
chiefly derived. Many goods of value, manufactured in England, can 
be profitably sent via our route, and over our railroad, and hundreds 
of American specialties, principally manufactured in the East — labor- 
saving machines, useful inventions, machinery, especially agricultural 
machinery, American hardware, etc., etc., will, we are assured, now 
that the Australian steamship line is established, be forwarded over it 
in large quantities. 

A guide book is in preparation at the Alta California office to be known 
as the Alta California, Pacific Coast and Trans-Continental Guide, which 
will contain a vast amount of information both regarding this coast, 
and the country traversed by the raiload. It will be got up in the 
most attractive form, embellished witb views of the various places of 
note on the Great Trans-Continental Railroad, and having a minutely 
detailed account of all the cities, towns, and other objects of interest 
along the line ot travel, and nothing at all calculated to render it in- 
dispensable to travelers will be omitted. To this work we refer our 
readers with confidence. It will be ready before January 1st, 1871. 
Large editions will be forwarded to Australia, New Zealand, China 
and Japan. 

Now that the great overland road has beeen long finished, specula- 
tions arc out of place in regard to future trans-continental lines. Wo 
shall in course of time have many, and the feats accomplished during 
the building of the existing line may be greatly exceeded. The Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad Company in making their way through the 
Sierra Nevadas encountered certainly difficulties which might make 
the boldest quail, but the locomotive now regularly awakes the echoes 
of that grand mountain chain, and art is triumphant over nature. 
The greatest feats ever performed in railroad construction mark the 
history of both the Union and Central Pacific roads : seven and a-half 



AI.TA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 101 



miles of track were laid in one day by tho Union Pacific people, who 
were beat by tho Central Pacific folks who laid ten miles of track. 
The roads are on the wholo excellent. All travelers, however, giro tbo 
preference to our end of the route, i. c. the 880 miles through Cali- 
fornia, Nevada and Utah built by tho Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, on which tho work is as substantial as on the best European 
lines. It is impossiblo for us to give any details descriptive ol tho 
route. Whether the traveler is bound on business or pleasure, he 
will find the C. P. 11. P., tho great artery of the country, and from 
it can make trips in all directions. A little further on will bo found a 
table of stations on tho road with the stages making connections for 
various points. Whether tho grand scenery of the Yosemite, or tho 
Sierras, tho mountain lakes, two 'Big Tree" groves, tho mines, or the 
quieter agricultural districts, the list which wo subjoin will bo found 
to indicate the 6tation at which the traveler s'.-.ould alight, and whero 
he will find his stage ready and waiting for a sturt. The through 
time to New York is now about G days 20 hours, but slight changes 
may be made at any time. The foreign traveler who in not familiar 
with the American railroad system of to-day, may be strongly recom- 
mended to tales a berth in ono of tho Silver Palace or Pullman sleep- 
ing cars, whero ho can not merely enjoy re3t by night, but exclusive 
accommodations during the day. Tho extra expense for tho wholo 
journey to New York is now very trilling. 

now BOTH HAILKOADS WEKE AIDED DY TIIE V. 8. GOVERNMENT. 

The subsidy in lands granted by tho Government of tho United 
States to the roads, was every alternate section of land for 20 miles 
on each side of the road, or 20 sections, cquaVng 12,800 acres for each 
mile of the road. The road from Omaha to Sacramento is 1,774 miles 
long. This gives the Company 22.707.200 acres, divided as follows : 
Union Pacific, 13,875,200 ; Central Pacific, 8,832,000. Government, in 
addition, agreed to issue its thirty -year six per cent bonds in aid of 
the work, graduated us follows: For the plains portion of the road, 
$1G,000 per mile ; for tho next most difficult portion, $32,000 per mile; 
for tho mountainous portion, $ 18,000 per mile. 

The Union Pacific Railroad Company built 523 miles, for which 
they received $10,000 per mile ; 408 miles at $32,000 per mile ; 150 
miles at $lS.O0O per miles— making a total of $2y.45G,000. 

The Central Pacific Railroad Company built 12 miles at $1G,000 per 
mile ; 522 miles at $32,000 per mile ; 150 miles at $48,000 per mile- 
making a total of $24.3SG,000. 

Tho total subsidies for both roads amount to $j2,S40,000. Govern- 
ment also guaranteed tho interest on the Companion' first mortgage- 
bonds to an equal amount. 

Principal Offices of tho C. P. R. R. — 415 California street, San 
Francisco; 5G and 53 K street. Sacramento ; 54 William street, Now 
York City ; 303 Broadway, Now York City. 

The President is Leland Stanford, Esq., ; Vice-Presidents, Messrs. C. 
P. Huntingdon and Charles Crocker. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



STATIONS OF THE CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD. 
Distaacea from San Francisco. 



RAN FRANCISCO. Mile3. 

Oakland Wharf 3 

Oaklmd.... fi 

Brooklyn 8 

.Simpson':! 11 

SanLeandro ) 

DeCOtO 'I 

Nilc3, (Junction for San Jose Branch,).. 20 

Ploasanton 41 

1 -ivrrmore 47 

Midway ." 03 

Eliis 69 

Banta', (daily stages for Mahonev's, 3!: 

Hill's Ferry, 4) ml ) 

Lath'-'p. (Junction < f Visalia Division, C. 

P. R. 11.. mw 1 >uH:' in- bl 

STOCKTON— Refreshment Station. — 
( Daily stages leave for Murphv'i", (i! : Big 
TreC3,71: AJarioosa. 100; Coultsrville,74; 
Yo3cmitc, in;); Columbia, CO, and Silver 

Mountain, 111 miles) 91 

Mokclunrio, (daily si-ages loavc for Lock- 
ford 7; Camanelie. 18; Carmo Seco, 23, 

and San Andreas. L'5 miles) .'. 103 

Gait, (daily stages leave for lone G'it", '2.1; 
Jac'cson. 34 ; Gutter Creek, 34 : Mokelum- 
no IIill, DO, and Calaveras Big Trees, 71 

miles) i 112 

MeConne l's 11!) 

Elk Grove 120 

Brighten 133 

S ACRAMlJJM'rG— Refreshment Station . 
(Connections with Folsom and Shingle 
Springs via the Sacramento Valley R. 
R. From Folsom. stage3 for Mormon 
Island, .Salmon Falls, Greenwood Val- 
ley and Coloma. Shinglo Springs, with 
stages for El Dorado. Diamond .Springs, 
Piacorvil'e, Georgetown and Coloma) . . .13S 

American River Bridge 141 

Arcado 1401 

Junction.— Eating Station E, b'd trains. 
(Junction of Oregon Branch of the C. 
P. 11. II. for Marysville and Chico. At 
Marysviilo. for Orovillo via Marysviilo 
a-Hl Orovillo R. R. At Marysviilo. for 
Downicville.by stage. 65 miles: for N'th 
San Juan, by stage, E8 miles ; f r'm Chico 
for Portland, Oregon, by stage, 630ms.l5G 

Rocilin 160 

Pino 162 

Newcastle 1G0 

Auburn, (Stages for Coloma, l'J miles, 

and Michigan Bluils. 3 J miles 174 

ClipprGap 18'J 

COLFAX— Station for meals W. bound 
l i ,j Valley, 13 : Ne- 

vada. 17, and North San Juan, 29 miles. 182 

Gancllora 196 

Gold Run , 202 

Dutch Flat, (stage for Nevada. 17 miles. .205 
Alta — Station for meals E. bound trains. .207 

Bluo Canyon 21C 

Emigrant Gan 222 

Cisco ." .23U 

Cascade 237 

Summit. .243 

TRUCKEE— (Stages for Lake Tahoe, 11 
DonncrLako. 2 ; Sierravillc, CO, and Loy- 
alton, 33 miles 



I Miles. 

'Boca 2fi(i 

State Line 276 

Verdi 282 

RENO— (Stages for Virginia City. 21 ; Car- 
son City, 32, and Washoe, 17 miles 292 

Camp37 300 

Clark's 312 

WADSWORLTI 327 

Hot Springs 310 

White Plains 3fil 

Brown's 573 

Granite Point 379 

Lovelock's 3S9 

Oreana 4 1 

Ryo Patch. 411 

Humboldt— Station for meals E. and W. 

bound trains 422 

Mill City— (Daily stage to Unionvillo, 20 

miles 434 

Raspberry 441 

Roso Crock 451 

WINNEMUCO A -(Stages for Camp Mc- 
Dormott, 81 miles; Owyhee Ferry, 150, 

and Silver City, 2 6 miles <X.2 

Golconda 479 

Iron Point. 49 > 

Stono House £03 

BATTLE MOUN V— Station for meals. E. 
and W. bound trains. (Stage to Aus- 
tin, CO miles.) 522 

Argcnta 534 

Shoshone 515 

Bo-o-wa-we 555 

Palisade 573 

C »RLIN . r -83 

Moleen 594 

ELKO-Station for meals E. and VV. b'd 
trains. (Stago to Hamilton. 121; Cope, 
83 : Silver City, 1S6, and Boise City, 24 " 

miles 606 

Osino 616 

Pcko 626 

Halleck 639 

Dceth 642 

Pulasco .6)5 

Wells 663 

Moore's 66') 

Independence 677 

Otego 68G 

Pequop 689 

TO.\NO 699 

fjoray 7 6 

Montello 713 

I'Dooma 725 

Lucin 731 

Terrace 758 

Matlin 774 

KELTON— (Stages to Boise City, 233: Ba- 
ker City. 380: Uniontown, 415, and Uma- 
tilla, 534miles .791 

Monument 807 

Lako 812 

romontory 8. 8 

Corinno 857 

Brigham C66 

OGDEN— Eating .station E. and W. b'd 
trains. (Connection with U. C. R. R. 
for Salt Lake City ; distance 37 miles.) . .881 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



103 



For obvious reasons \vc shall not include a full table of farts in this 
place. Slight changes are, of course, liable to bo made. We propose 
however, for the benefit of business men and tourists who may refer to 
this little work, to name the present first-class passenger rate3 from 
San Francisco to leading points on the Central Pacific llailroad. 



Main Lino. 



SAN FRANCISCO to- 

Stockton (Gold .) I 

Baoraracmtd 

Auburn 4 S 

Colfax 

Truckee 

Reno 

Wadsworth 

Wianeniucca 



Battlo Mount 31 01 

Uarlin 87 1 

Toano.V.V.'.'.V.V. '.'.'.'.'..'.'.'. '. '. '.'.'.'. '.'.'. '.'. '. "■"> 51 

Keltoo 63 0) 

(Jorinnu S3 I fl 

Ogden 6JC0 

(Offdcn to Salt lA-.Uo City via. U C. 
Railroad; 2C0 



California and Qro^on Railroad. 



SAN FR AK CISCO to— 
Muryoville St ! 



Chico $7 0'' 

(From C'uico to Jfortland by sta2c;. . . .4J o 



SAN FRANCISCO to- 
Warm Springs $2 



San Joso Branch. 

San Jose $2 00 



U. P. R. R. and Connecting; Linoa. 



SAN FRANCISCO to- 

Cheyenno (Currency).: 

Omaha 

Qulncy 

CHIOAUO 

Xeokul: 

)'eoria 

Datroit 

Nia-a-a Falls 

Mor. eal 

Olev and 

Buffalo 

Albany 

NliW YORK 



| 94 Oi 
10 J 00 
IIS O.i 
1'8 <•■• 

113 :<-> 

110 8 
I 'JO .i 
1-3 5 J 
llji M 
1>!)0 
13 J S 
110 

l^d 0J 



Boston... 31^ 

Boston via New Yorh J3( 

lVt-burg 132 

I'h.ladulphia 134 

Bjltimo.e 1*1 

Washington Ml 

BT. I.OUI- in 

IndianapolU 1-') 

Cincinnati 1 .'■> 

Louisville LB 

M iiuihis 1 t 

Mobile l H 

NE W ORLEANS 150 



01 



THE MERCANTILE UBRARY ASSOCIATION OF SAN 

FRANCISCO. 

The first steps toward the formation of the Mercantile Library As- 
sociation of San Francisco, were taken in December, 1802, and on the 
1st of January, of the following year, the first election of oiQcers took 
place. Soon after this, the nucleus for the present library of 30,000 
volumes was obtained in the purchase of the valuable private library 
of Brigadier-General Hitchcock, U. S. A. On the 1st of February. 
18o3, the rooms of the Association were opened in the California Ex- 
change, at the corner of Clay and Kearny streets. During the seven- 
teen years of its existence, the Library has occupied four localities, 
In consequence of tha rapid growth of the city southward, the Associ- 
ation removed to the corner of Bush and Montgomery streets, a very 



104 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

central position, in 18G0. In 1863 the Association was re-incorporated. 
In 1865, a building fund was organized, by which a sum of $20,000 
was raised. Tho lot on Busli street worth $50,000, now covered by tho 
present three-story brick building, was obtained in 1866, and the cor- 
ner stone laid at the end of tho following year. The splendid build- 
ing, furniture, fittings and lot, cost $237,000. Unfortunately tho man- 
agers had launched out too liberally, and the amount received from 
subscriptions and donations had by no means kept paco with the ex- 
penditure. Dull times ensued, tho building was heavily mortgaged, 
and tho end of tho wholo affair was that tho Association found itself 
in 1870, in debt to tho tunc of about $300,000, with littlo chanco of re- 
ducing this largo sum, except by tho proceeds of an occasional lecture 
or theatrical performance Even the Grand Camilla Urso Concerts 
last February, realized only about $20,000, and it became evident that 
somo decided means must be taken to stave off tho imponding bank- 
ruptcy. By a special Act of tho Legislature, three lotteries or Gift 
Concerts for tho purpose were permitted, although such aro against 
tho laws of tho Stato. Tho managers organized a groat Million Dollar 
Lottery, half of which was to bo returned in prizes, and the conduct of 
which, to its termination on October 31st, gave general satisfaction, 
and not merely tho total indebtedness on tho building etc. was paid; 
over $50,000 remained for the purchase of books, etc., and tho general 
improvement of tho institution. 

Tho officers of tho Association are R. B. Swain, President; W. H. L. 
Barnes, Vice President; T. R. Hayes, Recording Secretary; D. Wil- 
der, Corresponding Secretary; W. C. Ralston, Treasurer; W. G. Bad- 
ger, J. M. McNulty, A. M. Ebbets, W. E. Wood, F. B. Reynolds, A. 
P. Elfelt, I. Wormser, W. Ashburner, and S. Hubbard, Trustees. A. 
Stebbins, Chief Librarian. 

Any person may become a member of the Association by signing 
tho Constitution; paying an initiation fee of two dodars, and regular 
dues at the rato of three dollars per quarter, in advance. His mem- 
bership shall continue so long as his dues are regularly paid. 

If tho dues of any member remain unpaid for the term of three 
months, he shall not be allowed to vote on any question before tho 
Association, nor at tho election of officers, "nor take any books from 
tho Library; and if for six months, his privileges and rights of mem- 
bership shall bo forfeited, unless notice bo previously given to the 
Librarian of intended absence, in which case no dues shall be required 
during said absence. 

Persons may bo elected honorary members by the Board of Trustees, 
and such persons shall bo entitled to all tho privileges of regular 
membership, excepting the right to vote and hold office. 

Any person may become a life member on paying to tho Association 
tho sum of ono hundred dollars, which shall constitute him a regular 
member, with full privileges, and without liability for any stated 
dues. 

There is somo probability that tho monthly dues may be reduced 
shortly, and the benefits of the institution thereby extended. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



105 



CENSUS OF THE TOWNS OF CALIFORNIA. 

Tho following tablo of tho population of tho towns of Californi 
taken from the Fodcral Census returns: 



rorcLATiov. 



rorcLATiox. 



San Francisco 

Sacramento 

Stockton City 

Ban Joso City 

Ukiah 

Petalurr.a 

Santa Kosa 

Sonora 

Columbia 

Santa Clara 

Marysvillo 

Beircia 

Vallejo 

San Bernardino. . . 

Placerville 

Los Angeles City.. 

Anaheim 

(Jrass Valley 

Yuba City 



500-. 1 

IGiOS 

10033 

9001 

065 

8868 

2901 

8498 

8200 

8470 

4375 

1G0O 

8398 

80G0 

1569 

5011 

565 

7000 

999 



Ilavilah 439 

Monterev City 1112 

Oakland*.....'. 11101 

Alameda 1557 

San Diego City 2300 



Snaanvillo. 

Colusa 

Jackson 

Lakeport 

Visalia 

Tehama 

Hod Bluff 

Knight's Ferry. 

Chico 

Quincy 

Independence. . 

Gilroy 

San Kafacl 



010 

10 j I 

2411 

297 

918 

163 

920 

8.50 

8710 

G40 

400 

1758 

831 



The Census returns for the Stato havo not yet been published in 
full. It is bcliovod that the population will uot exceed 550,000. 



TIDE LAND RECLAMATION- 

The various efforts being mado for the reclamation of the tido lands 
at the mouth of tho San Joaquin, at points around tho Bay, etc , aro 
among the most important works ever undertaken in California. Tho 
6oil of theso moro or less overflowed islands and lands has been 
accumulating for age?, and is ric'.i beyond comparison. The largest 
of the associations organized for the purpose of reclaiming theso 
islands, both in tho amount of land owned by it, and regarding tho 
work already done is tho Tido Band Kcclamation Company, whoso 
President is Mr. George D. Roberts. This Company recently sold ono 
largo island ( Twitchell Island) to tho Kentucky Company, who havo 
already sown fivo hundred n^rcs of Timothy grass, and alter tho begin- 
ning of tho rainy season will sow tho balanco of tho island in wheat 
and barley. Next year tho cultivation of tho English walnut, cran- 
berries, strawberries, raspberries ; also, the castor bean, rico. ramio, 
etc., will bo thoroughly tested on these reclaimed lands. Wo believe 
that tho Tide Land Kjclamation Company intends in general to lease, 
rather than sell its lands, which, bcimr so accessible to our market. 



100 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



must become the most valuable in tho State Everything will grow- 
on theso " Floral Islands" as they have not been inaptiy called, from 
thp wealth of flowcre and vegetation, by which they arc while in a 
state of nature naturally covered. The depth of rich soil — river 
mud — will render the use of manure unnecessary at any future 
time whatever. There arc not less than half a million acres of these 
submerged islands. Rice and sugar-cane, grain, hay, ramie, beets, 
madder, and any vegetable whatever, fruits of every variety, table 
grapes especially, will undoubtedly thrive as they thrive no where 
else. They have been recommended for forest tree culture. They are 
admirably adapted for stock and dairy farms. Should drought visit 
our land, the Floral Islands will still bo green and fresh, and can bo 
irrigated'to any extent. We arc informed by Captain Walker, of tho 
Tide Land Reclamation Companv, that tho Company intends to 
organize all their land in Swamp Land Districts before the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1871, and during tho next twelvemonths many thousands of 
acres of their best lands will be ready for tho cultivator, etc. In 
Cmtra Costa a district has been organized comprising twenty-ono 
thousand acres, and fronting on the "west side of Old River about 
twenty miles. The works have been commenced and will bo prose- 
cuted vigorously until the reclamation is completed. The Yolo and 
Colusa Swamp Land Company, owning valuable lands along tho Sac 
ramento River, has entered into the work of reclamation seriously. 
The Company undertakes to build a mammoth levee along the west 
bank of tho b'acramento River, from Knight's Landing to Colusa. Tho 
levee will be forty-two miles in length, and will probably reclaim 
100,000 acres. The cost of reclaiming theso lands is usually about 
$5 an acre : the lands arc purchased of the State at $1 25 per acre, 
which amount is refunded whenever they arc satisfactorily reclaimed. 
When so reclaimed, they aro worth $20, or $23 per acre, and will be 
worth double or treble those prices in a few years. 

At the southern end of the Bay of San Francisco over 10,000 acres 
of land have been reclaimed by private owners. Theso lands im- 
mediately skirting the Bay (in tho vicinity of the Mission San Jose) 
are watered by numerous creeks and streams from the mountains, 
Cayota, Guadaloupo, Penitentiary and Alameda Creek?, etc. The 
levees raised around theso lands are 12 feet wide at base, 8 feet on top 
and arc 3 feet high. One private owner at the Mission San Jose owns 
21,000 acres of these marsh lands. They have been tested, and found 
good for almost any agricultural developments whatever. Artesian 
wells strike water at 50 to 200 feet. 



CALIFORNIA LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT EX- 
CHANGE. 



This institution was organized on the 27th of April, 1868, its objects 
being to provide employment for labor and furnishing strictly reliable 
information to all classes of immigrants. When first put in operation, 
it was supported by voluntary contributions from our citizens, and has 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



107 



conferred a deal of good to those seeking employment, as well as to 
those desirous of help. By an Act of the Legislature, approved April j 
1, 1870, the sum of $.300 per month was appropriated for two rears 

Ont of the General Fund of the State, for the relief and support of tho ! 
Exchange. This appropriation was made on the express condition j 
that the benefits of the Exchange shall be open and free to all per- \ 
sons (male and female), except Mongolians, seeking employment or 
information through it:; agency. 

To give an idea of the work accomplished by tho Exchange, wc 
give a list of the principal mechanics ordered and employed from 
April 27, 18G8, until September :J0, 1S70 : 



Bakers 

Blacksmiths . 

Root and shoemakers 

Bricklayers 

ButJhers 

( tool-miners 

Cooks 

C'abincr- 

Carpentera 

Farm laborers. . 
Found rymen — 
Gardeners .... 
Generally useful 
Harness-makers 
Ilorss-shoers — 

Laborers 

Lumbermen 

Masons 

Milkens and dairymen 

Miners. 

Pointers 

Htone-cuttare 

Shecp-ahcarcrs 

Shophcrds 

Teamsters 

Tinsmiths 

Wheelwrights and I 
Wagon-makers... 1 

Waiter* 

Wood-choppers 



o 


M 1 


a 


s 1 

•a • 
3 






r.. 


73 


■VI! 


40S 


213 


130 


185 


in 


7,1 


ir> 


42 


TO 


WIS 


764 


158 


112 


1943 


17::! 


. 


•2211!) 




18 


421 


314 


273 


187 


72 


SO 


37 


•21 


6250 


5353 


821 


34:; 




58 


487 


282 


m 


514 


335 


24S 


14 


12 


lit 


70 


105 


80 


g:7 


560 


81 


71 


214 


107 


54-1 


3!)S 


1465 


1008 



WAGES Of 1-EBED. 



inth and found 

' ', Ulav. 

: onth : inostVy pieoo work. 

;:l i a 4"i ', ' month, and found. 
'',\ to:,. 
ionth. according to ability. 



month and found, 

',' d.-y. 

525 •!!",* month, and found. 

tontb, and found. 

j! :.') 5 W \ I moat h, and found. 

' ", ' day. 

• \\ day. nr G2.1V30 «i month and found, 
itn, and tound. 

I month, and found. 
$! > \i month, and found ; 32JJJ<W)3.00 •% day. 

' \\ day. 
i4@. r >f)da<-. 
">-6cents %} head. 

' r.io:it!i.an^ found. 

t, 1 month, and tound. 
2.50@3.50*day. 
13 j 1 V day. 

| i' C> ~{\ month, and found. 
I J J ';< month, and found; gl.?J@2 25 %» •Old. 



Since the opening of the Exchange, from April 27, 1838, to Septem- 
ber 30, 1870, 18,298 men and 7,321 women have been employed — in 
all, 25,019 persons. 

OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 
trustees (ex officio). 

His Excellency H. H. Hanrht Governor of California 

His lienor Thomas H. belby Mayor of !3an Fr.~nci3co 

R. B. Swain President ( h:imb.r of < omrjTco 

A. S. Hallidie President Mechanics' Instituto 

W. Lane Booker Pre ident British Donevo'cnl Associa'. on 

H. T. Hclmk tf President German Benevolent Association 

C. Meyers President First Hebrew Benevolent Association 

A. L. N.ilff Pr sidoa-. French B?mvolenr. Associa' ion 

Wm. O'Conncil President Irish- American Benevolent Association 

D. Porter President St. Andrews' society 



108 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



C. Christianssen President Scandinavian Society 

J.R.Kelly 

H. B.Forrester. 



J.' R. Kelly President St. Joseph's Society, St. Mnry's Cathedral 

.President Masonic Board of Belief 



trustees (active). 

Ira P. Rankin, President, S. F. Butterworth, 

O. V. Gillespie, Vico President, I. Fried lander, 

Charles B. McLane, Treasurer. Eugene L. Sullivan, 

J. B. Roberts, John. White, Secretary. 

A.. Techandelaar, Superintendent Male Department; Mrs. A. L. P. Bidloman, Matron 
Female Department. 

THE NEW POSTAL CONVENTION. 



Between tie United States and New Zealand. 



The announcement is made by Joseph H. Blackfair, Superintendent 
of Foreign Mails, by order of the Postmaster-General, that a Postal 
Convention has been concluded between the United States and the 
Colonial Government of New Zealand, establishing an exchango of 
correspondence between the two countries by means of the direct lino 
of Colonial mail packets plying between San Francisco and New Zea- 
land, as well as by such other means of direct mail steamship trans- 
portation as shall hereafter bo established. This Convention will bo 
carried into operation on the 1st of December, 1870, and establishes 
an international letter postage of twelve cents (sixpence) per each single 
rate of half an ounce or fraction thereof, the prepayment of which is com- 
pulsory, and the letters so prepaid in one country are to bo delivered 
free of all charge in the other. 

Letters posted unpaid, or prepaid any amount less than one full 
singlo rate of postage, cannot bo forwarded. But insufficiently paid 
letters, on which a single rato or more has been prepaid, will be for- 
warded charged with tho difference. Each country is to cjllect its own 
postage, only on printed matter of all kinds, whether sent or received, 
at the following rates, viz : United States postage on newspapers is 
fixed at two cents each, and on all other articles of printed matter four 
| cents per each weight of four ounces or fraction thereof, whether sent 
or received. 

The New Zealand postage on newspapers and other articles of 
printed matter, sent to or received from tho United Stales, are the 
same as charged for domestic postage by tho laws and regulations of 
that Colony. Provision is made for tho transit through tho United 
States, as well as tho conveyance by United States mail packets of the 
correspondence in closed mails, which tho New Zealand post office may 
desiro to transmit, by way of the United States, to British Columbia, 
tho British North American provinces, the West Indies, Mexico, Cen- 
tral and South America. And it is also provided that prepaid letters 
from foreign countries, received and forwarded from tho United States 
to New Zealand, shall bo delivered in said Colony free of all charges 
whatsoever ; and that letters received in New Zealand from tho United 
States, addressed to New South Wales or Australia, will bo forwarded 
to their destination, subject to tho same conditions as are applicable to 
a correspondence oi-iginating in New Zealand and addressed to those 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 109 

Colonies. New York, Boston and San Francisco arc the offices of ex- 
change on the side of the United States for all mails forwarded to or 
received from New Zealand, under the provisions of this Convention, i 
The mail packets of the Colonial line, plying between San Francisco 
and New Zealand, make their departures from San Francisco regularly 
on the 10th of each month. In addition to this convention it may be 
remarked that the establishment of a direct line of steamers between 
San Francisco and New Zealand brings the British mails to Australia 
and the other colonics in Occanica quicker than by way of the Suez 
Canal, and, therefore, the British post office avails itself of these ad- 
vantages to forward its closed mails from and to these Colonies by wav 
of the United States. 



DEAF, DUMB AND BLIND INSTITUTE. 

This is one of the noble charities fostered at the expense of the 
State. It is an institution for the education of the deaf, blind and 
dumb. It is free to all deaf and blind whose parents reside in this 
State. All deaf or blind persons between six and twenty-five years of 
age, that arc not mentally or physically incapacitated to receive an 
education, and who arc free from disease, whose parents or guardians 
reside on the Pacific Coast, beyond the limits of the State, may receive 
tho benefits of the institution on payment of $350 annually, which 
sum is paid into the State Treasury for the benefit of the institution. 
Tho Act creating this institution provides for a Board of five Directors, 
elected by the Legislature, who have the entire control and manage- 
ment in their hands. About four miles from the city of Oakland is 
tho site of the institution, consisting of 130 acres of fine land, on 
which fine buildings, with all the modern improvements, have been 
erected. It is now in a prosperous condition, and the inmates arc well 
cared for. The annual exhibitions given by the pupils show a marked 
degree of proficiency, reflecting credit on the instructors. Professor 
W. Wilkinson, A. M., is the Principal and chief executive officer of 
tho institution. 



MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE ASSOCIATION. 



In June, 18GG, a number of the leading mercantile houses of this 
city formed an Association to be known as the " Merchants' Exchange 
Association" — its objects being for the purposes of trade and com- 
merce. The Association has built on California street a large three 
story and basement brick building, at a cost of nearly §200,000, which 
stands an ornament and monument to the mercantile community. All 
desirable information of the state of the markets in all quarters of the 
globe can be readily obtained here. The arrival and departure of all 
vessels is telegraphed from all parts, and immediately posted up. 
Copies of all the leading papers in the country arc always on file. 
The following is a list of officers : President, Thomas II. Selby ; Sec- 
retary, Joseph A. Coolidgc ; Trustees, II. O. Sneath, Albert Dibblce, 
David Stern, J. B. E. Cavallier, It. B. Swain. 



110 ALT A CALIFORNIA. ALMANAC. 



THE NEW VINE BISEASE IN FRANCE. 



Tho following, bearing reference to tlio new vine disease in France, 
will bo read with interest by our viniculturists, who, in California, 
have as yet experienced no such troubles: 

Certain premonitory instances of the malady, it is said, were noted 
in 1860 and 1807, but it was not until the summer of 1869 (a season, it 
will bo rememborcd, of remarkable heat, following up a severe winter) 
that the evil assumed proportions, the magnitude of which has been 
increasing ever since. At present it is confined to two districts — the 
valley of tho Rhono and the department of Girondc. In tho latter the 
damage is of limited extent. Tho Mcdoc country has escaped alto- 
gether, but in the former the results have been truly deplorable. Tho 
crops have been reduced to one-tenth of tho average of former years. 
On the right bank certain districts have hitherto escaped ; but on the 
l?ft, which possesses a different geographical conformation, wide plains 
and valleys, watered by numerous streams, the disease has been almost 
universal. But of the 69,000 acres in Vancluse, 29,000 have been 
utterly ruined. Many proprietors, including some of tho most skillful, 
tho prizo growers of these districts, have beeu compelled to abandon 
tho culture within tho last twelve months. Around Boquemard and in 
Lo Gard entire vineyards have been grubbed up, and tho sticks sold as 
fuel, at 4d. per cwt. (83c. per 100 kilos). It is* a curious fact that the 
greater tho distance from tho banks of tho streams, tho less severe tho 
ravages appear to bo. Everywhere tho symptoms are identically tho 
same — healthy plants die off suddenly without any apparent cause, 
tho stem turns black, the leaf fades and drops off, and closo examina- 
tion shows that tho root is rotten throughout. The whole of a vine- 
yard is not attacked at once ; tho disease appears to establish itself in 
a number of independent contres, from whence it radiates rapidly in 
all directions, until tho entire area is infected. 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTE, OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



This Society was organized in 1835, and reincorporated in August, 
1870, under an Act of tho Legislature entitled "An Act to provide for 
the formation of Chambers of Commerce, Boards of Trade, Mechanics' 
Institute, and other kindred protective associations," approved March 
31, 1885. Tho designs and objects of this Association aro to cultivate 
a social feeling of friendship and tho mutual improvement of its mem- 
bers; tho dissemination of information and useful knowledge, by the 
establishment of a library of circulation and reference, a museum and 
reading room ; tho formation of classes and delivery of lectures for 
tuition ; tho collection of a cabinet, scientific apparatus, works of art, 
tho purchase of property and erection of buildings for the requirements 
of the Institute, and for any scientific, mechanical and literary pur- 
pose. 

Tho Institute now numbers about 1,200 members. It has a fino 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



111 



three-story brick building on Post street. It lias a library of 17,000 f 
volumes, lecture, reading and chess rooms 

On tho second Tuesday of August. 1871, an Industrial Exhibition I 
will bo commenced at the Mechanics' Pavilion, under the auspices of 
tho Institute. Contributions will bo expected from Australia, China, | 
Japan and Mexico. 

Following is a list of officers : 

A. X. HolHdio President I II. L. Davis Treasurer 

O. 11. Stcigcr Vic-i President I II. O. Kibbc Corresponding Secretary 

Gcorgo Pardy, Uccurding Secrotary. 
TEC3Trrs. 



Gcorgo Spaulding, 
Howard Chapman, 
Charles E. Hopjs, 



David ICcrr, 
J O. Ilanscom, 
Kobcrt Ewing, 



Jamea MoEt, 
D. P. Diunncr, 
John lioach. 



SAN FRANCISCO YACHT CLUB. 

Officers. — Commodore, Piatt; Vice • Commodore, Eckley; Secre- 
tary, Davis. 

Yachts owned by members: Tho Peerless, Richard Ogdcn, Esq.; 
Lotus, Captain Moodic ; Emerald and Harvest Queen, Vicc-Commo:!oro 
Eckley ; Startled Fawn, Messrs. Ilanna, Norcross and others ; Yildng, 
Captain Riley ; Haven, , Howard, Esq. 

Tho Club's building is situated on Long Bridge. Any citizen can 
become a member, if duly elected according to the rules. The name 
of the person desiring membership has to bo introduced by a member, 
laid over ono week, and then put to tho Tote. Ono black ball 
excludes. 



CENSUS RETURNS OF SAN FRANCISCO FOR 1870. 



First "Ward 

Second Ward 

Third Ward 

Fourth V.'arvl 

Fif'h Ward 

Sixth Ward 

Soventh Ward, 1st Procinct 
Seventh Ward, 2d Precinct 
Eighth Ward, 1st Precinct. 
Eighth Ward, 2d Precinct.. 

Ninth Ward 

Tonth Ward, 1st Precinct. . 
Tenth Ward, 2d Precinct... 
Tenth Ward, 3d Precinct... 
Tenth Ward, ah Precinct.. 
Elevonth Ward, 1st Prcc't. 
Eleventh Ward, 2d Prec't. . 
Eleventh Ward, 3d Prcc't. . 
Eleventh Ward, 4th Prcc't. 
Twelfth Ward, 1st Precinct 
Twelfth Ward, 2d Precinct 

Totals 



7. 1ST 

5,8iis 

i .!.■&; 
i;.r>s 
•J. ill 
3.192 
3.037 
■j.i.jT 
33.75 
■<::^> 
.-,. Ml 
2^14 
2.302 
3,071 
3.JI.J 
4.96.' 
4.787 
1,31)7 
648 
2. '33 
4,21! 



3,2.".!) 

5,5111 

Ml 

5,3M 

3.115s 
2 39.-) 

2.1MJ 

i:'is 
5,034 
2, -U 4 
2.1.5s 
2 KSti 
3.2 '2 
4 ill 
3,! 3.1 
1,2",!) 
Ml 
l.ftj'.i 



riiopr.itTT. 



$7. v.i,.".oo 

1 \95!i,K25 
4,193.500 

7.913. 500 
l,8i",. r ,C0 
20.M9.550 
1,G>5.050 
6.GG7 250 
lli.i 62.3 :o 
13.CG2.jlO 
11.011.005 
G,G03,810 
3,433.215 
5,17,1.780 
3.334.176 
7.973.G 
11.SU.7MI 
3,'03,5W 
3,711.720 
4,240.430 
10.bSU,020 

:iG5,2C9,771 




C.s.-s 

50 

2,5.0 



112 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



TIME TABLE OF THE WORLD. 

Time of day at various places v/Hon it is twelve o'clock, noon, 
at San Francisco. 
Ai M. n. M. S.| P. M. H. M. S. 

Astoria, Oregon 11 54 12 Lima, Peru 5. 1 36 

Canton, China 3 43 OOj^ondon, England. 8 9 31 

Pckin, China 3 56 OOjLos Angeles, California. . . 12 16 30 

Shanghai, China 4 12 4Q;LouisvilIe, Kentucky. ... 2 37 4 

Yodo, Japan 5 30 OOjMexico, Mexico 1 33 44 

Yreka, California 11 59 80 Montreal, Canada 3 15 44 

P: M. New Orleans, Louisiana. . 2 9 40 

Acapulco, Mexico 1 26 28 New York City 3 14 00 

Aspinwall. Isthmus 2 50 40 Nevada, California 12 5 15 

Boston, Massachusetts 3 25 48jOregon City, Oregon 12 40 

Charleston, S. C 2 50 40 Panama, Isthmus 2 52 40 

Chicago, Illinois 2 19 44 Paris, France 3 18 24 

Cincinnati, Ohio 2 32 1G Philadelphia, Penn 3 9 22 

Detroit, Michigan. 2 38 12 Placervillc, California 12 6 18 

Eastport, Maine 3 42 00 Portland, Maine 4 29 8 

Fort Yuma, California. . .12 31 18 Sacramento, California. . .12 3 58 

Galve3ton, Texas 1 50 33 Santa Fe, New Mexico. . .12 55 44 

Geneva, Switzerland 8 32 42 St. Louis, Missouri 2 9 4 

Gibraltcr, Spain 7 43 44 St. Petersburg 10 11 20 

Great Salt Lake City 12 41 40 Toronto, Canada 2 53 00 

Havana, Cuba 2 41 00 Washington, D. C 3 3 00 



THE WINE BUSINESS. 

Every year makes it more and more apparent that California is to be 
the great wine producing State of tho Union. It is next door to im- 
possible to furnish reliable statistics in regard to the annual yield. The 
best authorities set it down at something close on 5,000,000 gallons 
per year. Prices in some directions have advanced, and tho general 
condition of the business is satisfactory. At tho Horticultural Fair at the 
Pavilion last fall, a committee appointed for the purpose recommended 
the award of diplomas to no less than sixteen associations and private 
growers. The future of this industry is practically unlimited, while a 
large proportion of the very best lands suited to the culture — those of 
tho foot-hills of Placer, El Dorado, and Tuolumno counties — arc still 
available at low prices. Mr. Reed, the President of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, in his annual address at Sacramento, testified to the 
fact that there is, on tho western slope of the Sierras, a strip of land 
twenty by at least a hundred miles, a largo portion of which has been 
surveyed, and can be obtained from the Government and Central 
Pacific Railroad Company for $1 25 to $3 50 per acre. . 

Wo have ourselves tho most unlimited belief in the future of this 
industry, and feel snro that tho timo will come when there will bo 
infinitely more discrimination in the classification of these wines, and 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 113 

by consequence a great difference in the prices obtained. Some wines 
will be cheaper than they now are : others will be worth more per 

bottle than they now are per gallon. The production of line brandy 
Is certainly, according to appearances, in the dim and distant future, 
but it will be made some day. 

The manufacture of wine vinegar lias been established on a large 
scale in this city, and is increasing in importance. The wine vinegar 
works of D. It. Provost & Co., on Market street, near the San Jose 
Kail road-station, now make 1,000 gallons per day by the quick process, 
and the annual production is about 250,000 gallons. The importation 
of Eastern vinegar has nearly ceased, and Mr. Provost is about to send 
of his vinegar to New York, where they use the whiskey vim- 
gar, which lacks flavor, and the cider vinegar, which is inferior in 
strength and dear in price. Much of the stuff called cider vinegar is 
whiskey vinegar flavored by letting it stand on dried apples. The 
total consumption of San Francisco, and of those places which pur- 
chase vinegar here, amounts to 2,500 or 3,000 gallons daily. The 
| concentrated wine vinegar made by Mr. Provost is probably the very 
finest in the world. As an after result, we shall have fine pickles, 
having all the vegetables, etc., we can seed for the purpose. Such are 
already made by Messrs. Ward & Co., (adjoining Provost's vinegar 
works) and by other houses. 

The most profitable branch of wine making will undoubtedly be the 
manufacture of champagne. Just now, owing to the war, we have 
an opportunity of introducing our brands into the Eastern markets, as 
the stocks have got low, and prices have been enhanced. The Buena 
Vista Company of Sonoma, which, we believe, first introduced its 
manufacture ioto the State, is constantly turning out a really superior 
article, besides having an immense stock of the finest white and red 
wines. This company owns some 5,000 acres of land in Sonoma, and 
has a thriving vineyard, second in size to no other in the United 
States, if, indeed, in the world. The champagne manufacturers of 
France are among its commercial princes, and we believe that this 
manufacture is destined to add one leading item of wealth to our 
resources. There are several reasons why it should be an important 
branch of wine making. The drinking of still wines in the United 
States is for the most part an acquired taste, and does not seem to 
come very naturally to the ordinary run of people ; but all, can, appre- 
ciate a glass of sparkling wine. There are many little niceties re- 
quired to be observed in its manufacture, but the comparatively large 
price obtainable will leave a large margin of profit. We believe that 
ten years from now we shall have a very large number of firms en- 
gaged here in this business. 



AMERICAN SPECIALTIES FOR AUSTRALIA.* 

In the ordinary rim of business, Australia probably needs as few of 
our productions as we do of hers. We may sell on occasions our 
wheat to her, as we take some of her excellent coal. She has, how- 



114 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



ever, all the fruit, and wine and wool that she can want. We cannot 
hope to compete with English and other European goods, as a rule, 
except in certain directions, as for example, American watches, which 
are both good and cheap ; American breech-loading and other 
rifles and revolvers, which even when highly finished are frequently- 
cheaper than the corresponding English goods. But thero is an 
undoubtedly large opening in the introduction of genuine American 
specialties — a title which covers a very large field. Labor-saving 
machines of all kinds, , ranging from the little inventions used com- 
monly in the household, to those of every trade and manufacture. 
American hardware — our axes in particular are celebrated all over the 
world, and are well known in Australia. Agricultural machinery and 
implements, and ,in a word, nearly all that is distinctly and purely of 
American invention will be valued in a country, the needs of which are 
not much unlike our own. Of course, many of these inventions have 
been introduced into Australia, as into England, but only very par- 
tially, and there are scores of our minor specialties which are 
absolutely unknown. It is impossible for a writer — always more or 
less of a theorist — to particularize those which are best adapted ; the 
good sense of every man engaged in these particular lines of business 
will enable him to j udge which are the most suitable ; but now that 
the steamship line is established, it is very easy for any business man 
to find out. Not merely from our own conviction, but from those of 
many practical men with whom we have conversed, we are persuaded 
that a very large opening exists in the introduction of our specialties 
to the Australia and New Zealand markets. 

* From the News op the World, a paper specially prepared in the Alta California 
office for transmission to New Zealand and Australia. This journal contains the latest 
and fullest telegrams, special market reports telegraphed at considerable expense from 
London and Now York, at tho latest moment before the departure of the steamer, and a 
variety of original articles specially interesting in the Colonies. 



INTERESTING ITEMS. 

Messrs. Jas. G. Steele and Co., Chemists and Apothecaries, 521 
Montgomery street, have a great reputation for the purity of tbeir 
drugs, and the accuracy with which prescriptions are made up. They 
are themselves, direct importers of Medicines, Chemicals, Surgical and 
Dental Instruments, Toilet Articles, Perfumery and Brushes, the Gen- 
uine Farina Cologne, Lubin's Extracts, Low's Old Brown Windsor 
Soap, etc. They aro the proprietors of the following preparations : 
Florentine Tooth Wash ; Saponaceous Tooth Powder ; Dr. Younger's 
Tooth Wash (Dew of Roses) ; Crystal Tooth Powder ; Anodyne Plas- 
ter ; Devine's Pitch Lozenges ; Aurantine ; Oriental Perfume for the 
Handkerchief; Eglantine for the Handkerchief; Sparrow's Perfume 
for the Handkerchief ; Glycerine Lotion, for the Face and Hands ; Ci- 
trate Magnesia — Solution of, etc. ; Steele's Table Sauce ; Stuart's Sun 
Pearl, and also manufacture the following Mineral Waters from Lie- 
big's, Bunsen's and Bergmann's Analyses : Kissengen, Vichy, Carls- 
bad, and Seltzer Water. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 115 



People will smoke, and tlie trouble is that half the time they can- 
not get decent cigars. Californians like the best of everything, but 
imported cigars cost a little too much for some of us to indulge in them 
frequently. Of course, at all times there have been cigars manufac- 
tured here, generally ranging in quality from vile to indifferent. 
Some years ago, it struck Messrs. Weil & Co., now of 221, 223, and 
223 Front street, who are bye-the-bye, importers of the finest Havana 
cigars and all brands of tobacco, that whilst the manufacture might 
be carried on here, the tobacco for the purpose should be imported 
from Havana. This idea they successfully carried out ; appointed an 
agent in Cuba, and made and make cigars here, undistinguishable 
from, because precisely as good as the imported article, which pays an 
enormous duty. They directly employ some 150 men, and their fac- 
tory is a model of order and neatness, besides being the pioneer estab- 
lishment of an important industry. They can, of course, furnish fine 
cigars, at prices much below those of the imported kinds, and make a 
handsome profit too. The tobacco imported by Weil & Co. — the 
Vuelta Abajo— is the finest grown, and comes from the western end of 
the Island of Cuba. Among their foremen workmen are Spaniards 
and Cubans formerly employed in Havana. The establishment first 
opened in January, 1867, since which time its success has been of the 
most decided kind, proving that they had hit the right nail on the head 
in its inauguration. 



It is a treat to inspect the grand warehouses of Kohler, Chase & 
Co., Importers of Musical Instruments, Fancy articles, Toys, etc., 633 
Clay street, (running through to Commercial.) On the lower floor the 
celebrated Chickering Pianos, (for which the decoration of the Legion 
of Honor, and Gold Medal were awarded at the Paris Exposition in 
1867, as the best in the world :) and the Mason and Hamlin Cabinet, 
Portable and Metropolitan Organs, for both of which Messrs Kohler, 
Chase & Co., are sole agents on this coast, are arranged, with an infin- 
ite variety of ali other kinds of musical instruments. The two upper 
floors are devoted to the display of all kinds of Toys, Basket ware, 
Yankee Notions, and Fancy Goods of all varieties. The whole is a 
perfect little Exposition in itself. The prices for the Hamlin organs 
have a considerable range, but the plainer styles are excessively cheap, 
considering the known excellence of the instruments. 



R. H. McDonald & Co., druggists and general agents, corner of Pine 
and Sansome streets, and who also have an extensive house at 32 and 
34 Commerce street, New York are noted for the purity and reliability 
of their drugs and preparations. Everything known in the pharma- 
copoeia is to be obtained there. They are the agents for that celebrated 
tonic Dr. Walker's Vinegar Bitters, manufactured from roots and herbs 
growing on this coast. They are said to be most efficacious in purify- 
ing the blood, and are specially recommended to those suffering from 
skin diseases. They are not alcoholic bitters, but a genuine medicine, 
not, however, unpleasant to take. 



116 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



No more useful invention has been given to the public than Kane's 
Condensed Soap, which is stronger by four or five times than any 
other. Iu using it for washing, it eaves much Id labor, and the clothes 
themselves are not worn out or torn in the process. For removing 
grease, paint, tar, etc., from fabrics ; for cleansing paint work and a 
score of other purposes, it is unequalled. It is specially adapted for 
washing flannels, etc., and will not injure if finest laces, cambrics 
etc. From it several varieties of soap can be manufactured ; it is the 
most portable kind in the market, and speci lly adapted to the needs 
of our coast, where the cost of transportation is often so large. It is 
manufactured by the Standard Soap Company 204 & 206 Sacramento 
street, where a great assortment of fancy and toilet soaps, washing 
powders, etc., are also made. 



The great paint, oil, and varnish house of Sullivan, Kelly & Co., 
corner of Front and Pine streets, has long been celebrated for the very 
high quality of its goods. All the articles required in the painting 
and glazing trades are to be found in this establishment. Glass of all 
sizes, and ranging from common window to the finest plate ; oils var- 
nishes, alcohol and white lead ; colors of all kinds, including the 
splendid ziuc paint of the Viclle Montagne Company, imported from 
Liegjs and Paris ; the choicest brands of all colors ; brushes of the best 
New York and other manufactures ; in short, everything required in 
their particular business is to be found there. They have also a large 
assortment of the finest artists' materials, including those from the 
famous house of Windsor & Newton. Town and country purchasers 
should inspect their stock, which is in itself a sight. 



The Occidental Hotel is too wellkn_«wn by our traveling public 
to need any word from us. The accommodations are equal to the best 
afforded in the largest Eastern and European cities. The table has 
been justly celebrated for a long time past. This hotel, which could 
not be more centrally situated, has 400 rooms ; baths on every floor ; 
an elevator kept constantly employed ; a dining-room which will seat 
400 persons at a time, and which is kept open almost continuously till 
midnight ; a billiard saloon 200x50 feet in area, with thirteen tables ; 
a steam laundry, barber's shop, bar, etc. The prices charged are most 
moderate, and the hotel always secures a large share of the traveling 
public's patronage, and especially that of foreign visitors. 



Marcus. C. Hawley & Co., of New York and San Francisco, have at 
their warehouses, 108 and 110 Front street, an immense stock of 
hardware and agricultural implements, They are sole agents for 
three important specialties, viz : the Buckeye Mower and Reaper, the 
Burdick Hay Cutter, and the Eureka Gang Plow, and all the latest 
improved forms of agricultural machinery are + o be found in their 
stores. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 117 

Messrs. Rodmond Gibbons & Co., of 108 Battery street, are the 
sole agents on this coast for Dupont's Blasting, Cannon, Musket, and 
Sporting Powders, and several kinds of patent fuses. They are also 
sole agents for the Winchester Improved Henry Rifles, Carbines, etc., 
which are capable of discharging eighteen shots in nine seconds. 
Those who have not become familiar with these splendid arms can 
have no conception of the accuracy and rapidity of their fire. Eight- 
een cartridges are placed in a groove running down the back of the 
barrel, and they can be fired off in succession without half a second's 
interval of time. Although they are undoubtedly the most valuable 
arms in the world, they are sold at very moderate prices. They can 
also be used as breech loaders. 



Sorbier's Restaurant, 540 Commercial street, is the resort of the 
ion vivants of San Francisco who know that they will get all the luxu- 
ries in the market there, served in the most perfect style. Sorbier's 
Restaurant is conducted on a French basis, but whatever is good in 
the American, English, Spanish, or any other cuisine, is to be obtained 
there. You get hot plates there. This will hardly be credited, but it 
is so. 



The Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, of San Francisco, has 
become one of the most important local institutions, and as all the 
money paid into it is invested here, it deserves the full recognition 
of every Californian who thinks anything of his State. The Company 
undertakes both Fire and Marine Insurance. Its Capital is $500,000 ; 
its surplus $267,115, giving, last January, total assets of $767,115. 
Losses are paid with the greatest promptness in gold coin. The Fire- 
man's Fund Insurance Co.'s offices are at the S. W. corner of California 
and Sansome streets. 



Messrs. Baker & Hamilton, 13 to 19, Front street, Importers and 
Manufacturers of Agricultural Implements and Machinery, are the 
sole agents for a score of specialties, among them, Pitts' Celebrated 
California Thesher, Wood & Manns' Improved Engine, the Julien 
Churns, Earl's Patent Steam Pumps, the Excelsior, Champion, Union, 
and Buckeye Mowers and Reapers, the Sweepstake Gang Plow, etc. 
Messrs. Baker & Hamilton have a large factory at San Leandro, and 
have employed forty men there since May, 1868. The establishment 
includes ten forges, planing machine, foundry, etc. Since its start, they 
have constructed 2,000 of Surza's Patent Sweepstake Gang Plow — a 
purely California invention. They are sold at the same price as im- 
ported Eastern plows of the same character. Their factory is directly 
on the line of the C. P. R. R., and they can therefore ship to all points 
readily, expeditiously, and cheaply. They manufacture any quantity 
of agricultural implements, etc., besides those above named. They 
have also warehouses at 9 to 15, J street, Sacramento. 



118 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Messrs. Locke & Montague, Importers of Stoves and Metals, 
112 and 114 Battery street, are agents and manufacturers of Hansbrow's 
Patent Pumps, all kinds of Mining and Mill supplies, cast and wrought 
iron pipes, brass and plated cocks, plumbing, tinsmens' and mechanics' 
tools, etc. One of their specialties in stoves is the celebrated " Dia- 
mond Rock," the neatest and cheapest cooking stove in the market. 
The greatest novelty in their line is, however, the Prindle Agricultural 
Steamer and Farmers' Boiler, which can also be used advantageously 
by one hundred different trades. It is specially adapted for cooking in 
quantities for feeding stock, as evidenced by the enormous number of 
testimonials received by the Patentee and Agents. It is in fact a uni- 
versal apparatus, and has been found specially adapted for the follow 
ing purposes: among others, Boiling Sugar, Boiling Soap, Boiling 
Clothes in Wooden Vessels, etc., Bathing Tubs, Blacking Manufactur- 
ers, Boiling Everything, Blue Dye Vats Heating, Beer making, etc., 
Cooking for Hotels, Cooking for Saloons, Cheese Factories, Carriage 
Shops, Clothiers, Cabinet Makers, Dyeing Establishments, Distilleries, 
Extracts, etc., Eating Houses. Fodder Cooking, Green Houses, Germi- 
nating Seeds and Plants, Heating explosive or dangerous compounds 
or substances. Jams, Jellies, etc., Heating Jacket Kettles by Steam, 
Kiln Drying Fruits, Kiln Drying Hops, Kiln Drying Tobacco, Laun- 
dries, Preserving and Canning Fruits, etc., Petroleum Oils, Rendering 
Lard and Tallow, Steaming Timber, Steaming Barrels, Milk Cans, etc., 
Steams Oysters, Clams, Lobsters, etc., Tobacco Drying and Flavoring, 
Tanneries, Wood Preserving, Wool Scouring. A descriptive! catalogue 
of the various sizes, etc., can be obtained from Messrs. Locke & Mon- 
tague. 



Messrs. Treadwell & Co., corner Market and Front streets, Import- 
ers and Manufacturers of all kinds of Agricultural Implements and 
Machinery, have the grandest establishment of the kind in our city. 
They have branch houses in Sacramento, Stockton, and Marysville. 
Among their specialties, are Hoadley's Portable Steam Engine " Cin- 
derella," (a descriptive pamphlet of which can be obtained from Messrs. 
Treadwell,) Haines' Headers, (manufactured by Treadwell & Co.) ; 
Huie's Gang Plow — a California invention : Hoadley's Threshing En- 
gines and Separators, and Cahoon's Broadcast Seed Sower, constructed 
both for horse and hand power. The horse machine sows ten to fifteen 
acres per hour, throwing the wheat sixty feet wide at each passage. 
All the farm machinery necessary for a California ranch, can be ob- 
tained of this firm. 



The Chakter Oak Life Insurance Company, of Hartford, 
Conn., has been established and in successful operation twenty years, 
and for eighteen years have had the same President and Secretary. It 
is now working under low table rates, and all cash premiums, which 
are lessening every year. Compared with other Companies, it is equal 
to the best in all the cardinal points necessary to make up a sound, 
reliable Life Insurance Company. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 119 



The Pacific Mail Steamship Company is not merely the largest 
American steamship line on this coast, but in the world. Its Panama 
line has long been celebrated, and there are rumors afloat that the 
Company intends building a new line of propellers for the route, in 
order to reduce the rates on the transportation of freight. Its China 
monthly line includes some of the most splendid vessels in the world. 
Our foreign visitors never cease admiring the magnificent accommoda- 
tions of the "China," the "Great Republic," the "Japan," and the 
" America." By the establishment of that line the missing link in the 
steamship voyage round the world has been supplied. For Europeans 
bound to China, and vice versa, the line is the best and the route the 
most agreeable in the world, having many advantages over that by 
Suez, with the additional advantage of the connection with the Pacific 
Railroad. The offices of the Company are at their wharf on the corner 
of First and Brannan streets. 



The Bank of California having agencies and correspondents at all 
the principal interior towns on the coast, including^Virginia City, Gold 
Hill, and White Pine, is well known to be one of the best managed 
and sound institutions of our State. Its splendid and substantial 
building at the corner of California and Sansome streets, is pointed 
out to visitors as one of the outward proofs of our material prosperity. 
It issues letters of credit for all parts of the world, and draws direct 
on all the leading European, Australian, Japanese and Chinese cities. 
Its agents in New York, are Messrs. Lees and Waller ; in Boston, the 
Tremont National Bank ; in London, the Oriental Bank Corporation. 
It has a capital of $5,000,000. Its President is D. O. Mills, Esq,, and 
its Cashier, W. C. Ralston, Esq. 



Charles Bernard, No. 707 Sansome street, has by far the largest 
and finest Coffee and Spice Mills in the State. His Coffee and Spices 
are justly celebrated for their purity and excellence, and have taken 
First Premiums at all the State and Mechanics' Fairs where exhibited. 
None but the choicest materials are used in the Factory. 



For the very choicest, as well as all branches of plain book-binding, 
blank books, etc., there is no better or more reliable house in the city 
than that of Bartling & Kimball, 505 Clay street. They profess 
to compete with anybody, and do their work at Eastern rates. Orders 
by mail, or express from the country, very promptly filled. 



Chas. D. Carter, the well known Real Estate Agent, of 410 Cali- 
fornia street, has houses and lots in all parts of the City and State for 
sale. His " Real Estate Circular," published every month, has become 
the recognized organ for real estate transactions, and all properties for 
disposal, put in his hands are advertised in it free of charge. 



BAKER & HAMILTON, 

IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 

2jftttt!t«f*! X*9ltt»t*tf 

AND 

HARDWAEE, 

Sole Agents for 
Pitt's Celebrated California Threshers— only Thresher sold the past two 
seasons to any extent, Wood & Mann's Improved Engines, .lulien Churns, 
Earl's Patent Steam Pumps, Male's Copper Strip Feed Cutters— best and 
cheapest, Excelsior Mower and Reaper, (hanipion Mower and Reaper* 
Uniou Mower, Ruckeye Mower and Reaper. 

The only saleable and useful Gang on the Coast. 

BACKER & HAMILTON, 
13 to 19 Front Street, I 9 to 15 J Street, 

San Francisco. I Sacramento. 

Manufactory "Sweepstake Plow Co.," San Leandro. 

FIREMAN'S FUND 

INSURANCE COMPANY, 

S. W, corner California and Sansome Streets, 

SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 

Fire and Marine Insurance. 

Capital, ... - $500,000.00 

Surplus, .... 267,11 5.63 

Total Assets, Jan. 1, 1870, Qold, $767,115^63 

Losses Promptly Paid in U. S. Gold Coin. 

D. J. STAPLES President. 

G-. T. LAWTON Vice-President. 

CHARLES R. BOND Secretary. 



ESTABLISHED 1868.] [ESTABLISHED 1868 




CONDENSED SOAP 

WASHES WITHOUT RUBBING. 



EQUALLY GOOD IN HARD OR SALT WATER, 

One box of Kane's Condensed Soap is equal to five boxes of Common 
Soap, saving at least 75 per cent, in transportation. 

Saves Three-fourths of the Labor, Wear and Tear of Clothes. 

For the TOILET, BATH, or REMOVING GREASE, PAINT, TAR, 
PITCH, from Fabrics, or CLEANING PAINT WORK, etc., KANE'S 
CONDENSED SOAP has no equal. 

KANE'S CONDENSED SOAP 

Contains NO RESINOUS SUBSTANCES and is especially adapted to 
Washing FLANNELS and WOOLEN GOODS of Every Des- 
cription, rendering them bright and soft as new without 
shrinking and will not injure in any way the 
finest Muslins, Cambrics or Laces. 

Put up in Boxes of 20 bars, 18 lbs., with full directions on 
each Box. 

One Bar makes Two Gallons of Beautiful White Soft Soap, requiring 
only from 5 to 10 minutes to make it. 

KANE'S RAILROAD TOILET SOAP; KANE'S CONCEN- 
TRATED ERASIVE SOFT SOAP, all made from the CONDENSED. 

None Genuine without Signature. 




^k^^^/T^^^^^ 



MANUFACTURED BY THE 

iiAinii soap mm®$ 

The Oldest and Only Factory that manufactures the Original Washing 
Powders, and a full line of Fancy and Toilet Soaps, 

B04 &MB MQ@ &aewaiMmaPF@ Mwmmmr t 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Cfcnick Time and Cheap Fares 

FROM 

AUSTRALASIA, CHINA AND JAPAN 

TO 

NEW YORK AND LIVERPOOL. 

THE GREAT TRANS-CONTINENTAL ALL RAIL ROUTE 

VIA 

Central and Union Pacific Railroad Line 

IS NOW JN COMPLETE RUNNING ORDER FROM 

SAN FKANCISCO TO THE ATLANTIC SEA«B0AKD. 



THROUGH EXPRESS TRAINS LEAVE SAN FRANCISCO DAILY 

Making Prompt Connection with the several Railway Lines in the 1 j 
Eastern States, for all the Cities of the 

TTxiitoca. States and. Oanstcia, 

CONNECTING AT NEW YORK 
With the several Steamer Lines to 

England, France and all European Ports 

iPUDnTTfll TTHirr PflTCTP VhW From San Francisco to Omaha, 4 Days and 
lflltUUllll 11 ML UUlllU LnOl e Hours; to Chicago, 8 Days and 6 Hours; 

To NEW YORK, 6 DAYS and 20 HOURS. 



S»il-\7-er Palace Sleeping Coaches, 

Second to none in the world, are run daily, from SAN FRANCISCO to NEW YORK 
and Intermediate Points. These Drawing-Room Cars by day, and Sleeping Cars by 
night, are unexcelled for comfort and convenience to the passenger while en route— com- 
bining the elegance of a private parlor, and all accommodations pertaining to a well- 
furnished chamber, with comfortable Couches, Clean Bedding, etc. A competent Porter 
accompanies each Car to attend to the wants of our patrons. 



Children not over Twelve (12) Years of Age, Half Fare; under Five (5) Years of Age, Free. 



THROUGH! /I O O CALIFORNIA STREET, 

TICKET OFFICE, 4t & & SAN FRANCISCO. 

Through Freights from San Francisco to New York and other Eastern 
Cities, contracted through at Low Rates. Mark Goods care C. P. R. R. 

T. E. 8ICKLES, Gen'l Supt. U. P. R. R. A. H.' TOWNE, Gen'l Supt. C. P. R. R. 

FRAS. COLTON, Gen'l Passenger Agent, Omaha, Nebraska. 

T. H. GOODMAN, Gen'l Passenger Agent, Sacramento, Cal. 



PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY 

From New York to Japan and China, via Panama and 
San Francisco. 

One of the following named Steamers leaves New York on the 4th and 
20th of each month : 

Alaska, 4000 tons Arizona, 3000 tons, Rising Star, 3000 tons, 

Henry Chauncey, 3000 tons, Ocean Queen, 3000 tons. 

Connecting at Panama with Steamers— 

Constitution, 4000 tons. Colorado, 4000 tons. 

Sacramento, 3000 " Montana, 3000 " 

One of the following named steamers : 
Great Republic, Japan, China, and America, 4000 tons each, 

leaves San Francisco for Hong Kong on the 1st of each month, touching at Yokohama, 
Japan, and connecting with the company's Steamers for Shanghae and ports in the Inland 
Sea of Japan. 

Steamers leave Hong Kong on the 12th, ou the return trip, and San Francisco 
for yew York on the 3d and 18th of each month. 
Time between New York and San Francisco, 22 days. Between San Francisco and 

Hong Kong, 30 days. Between San Francisco and Yokohama, 22 days. 
ALLAN McLANE, Pres't, N. Y. D. M. C0RWINE, Agent, Panama. 

F. W. G. BELLOWS, \ -. PlW( . a w v GE0 - E - LANE. Agent, Yokohama. 
S. L. PHELPS, } vice -" es ls > «• *• GEO. F. BOWMAN, Agent, Shanghae. 

F. R. BABY, Agent, " T. A. HARRIS, Agent, HoDgKong. 

WM. RATHBUN, Agents, Aspinwall. 

Office in San Francisco, at Company's Wharf, foot First and Brannan Streets. 
ELDRIDCE & IRWIN, Agents. 



TREADWELL & CO. 

Importers and Manufacturers of 

Agricultural Goods, 

AND HARDWARE, 

COR. MARKET AND FREMONT STS. SAN FRANCISCO. 



Sole Agents for 

Hoadley's Threshing Engines, (best in use,) Russell's Im- 
proved Threshers, (best in use,) Haines' Headers, with 
patent adjustable Seat, made by Wood-no other 
Headers have this Seat), Wood's Prize Mowers, 
Kirby's Self-Kake Reapers, Gaboon's Power and Hand Seed 
Sowers, Treadwell's Gang Plow— Haines Patent. 

Rope, Nails, and a full Stock of Hardware. 



FIVB FIRST PRBMroMSI 



JF'^Ll^tXXj-X- 



Coffee and Spice Mills, 

No. 707 SANSOME STREET, 

Between Jackson and Pacific, SAN FKANCISCO. 



These Mills have been in operation for sis years, and are well 
known throughout the entire country of the Pacific Coast. The 
purity of the coffee and spices which they turn out has commended 
them to families and hotels, where their popularity is unbounded. 
They are neither drugged, sanded nor mixed, but are manufactured 
from the clean berry, without the addition of any foreign matter, 
whatever. 

The coffee and spices of these Mills have taken first premiums at 
all the State and Mechanics' Fairs where they were exhibited. They 
were awarded first premiums at the Mechanics' Fairs of 1865 and 1868, 
and three first premiums from the State Agricultural Fair of 1868. 

None but the choicest Manila, Java and Costa Rica berries are used 
in the manufacture of the Chartres Coffee ; millions of pounds of 
which have thus far found a ready market. The berries are all picked 
and cleaned before roasting. A large annual shipment of the coffee 
and spices is made to Nevada, Utah, Oregon and Washington Terri- 
tory, in addition to the vast quantities used in the California trade. 
A steady increase of patronage has compelled an enlargement of the 
facilities of these mills, and a considerable addition to the number of 
hands employed. 

The proprietor, Charles Bernard, also conducts an extensive busi- 
ness in Cream of Tartar, Saleratus and Carbonate of Soda. 

Those who have used the Chartres Coffee prefer it to that which is 
roasted, ground and made into a drinking beverage in their own 
families. 



THE (HIT HTML ME «I 

Of tlxe Pacific Coast. 

&ammb <©® BWEmBm &b mm® 
(P*mt* t* Hftfc H$; tttttttfttf 

IMPORT AND SELL DIRECTLY FROM 

EASTERN AND EUROPEAN MARKETS, 

No. 521 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 



MANUFACTURERS AND SOLE PROPRIETORS OF 

STEELE'S GLYOEEINE LOTION and GKDTDELIA LOTION 

FOR THE CURE OF POISON OAK. 

Iiiia TIs$» Ti&tealiauml %mm%m>%w 

OFFICE, 409 BATTERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



MESSRS, AUGER &. CHRISTIANSEN, IMPORTERS and COMMISSION MERCHANTS. 



VINEYARDS AND CELLARS, - - - - SONOMA. 

Orders respectfully solicited for WHITE and RED WINES, and 
PURE BRANDY. 

Special attention is called to their SPARKLING NATIONAL GRAPE, 
which received Honorable Mention at the Paris Exhibition in 18G7. 

CALIFORNIA CRAPE WINE 

Corner Market and Brady Streets. 

33. H.- ITrlOVOST, - - 3VE-A.3XT AG-EIF*.. 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



SULLIVAN, KELLY & CO. 

(Successors to D. J. Oliver,* 

IMPORTERS OF 

WITS. OILS, YiifllllSHES v ET< 

Corner of Front and Pine Streets, 

S-A.HST FRANCISCO. 



[From the Alta California, May 10, 1867.] 
" The first floor of this importing establishment is completely packed, 
from ground well nigh to the ceiling, with a vast assortment of paints, 
brushes, paraffine and castor, olive and other oils. One side is occupied 
with shelves, upon which a large stock of Winsor & Newton's artists' 
materials are arranged. In the second story is to be found a very large 
and varied supply of French and English glass, including crystal-sheet 
double-thick— a superior article, used for windows. The glass is of all 
sizes, from 8x10 to 40x60. Sullivan, Kelly & Co. are agents for the leading 
and most celebrated factories in Belgium and England. Tliey keep on 
band a full stock of Chance, Brothers & Co.'s window glass, which has 
obtained a reputation for excellence that extends all overthe world. The 
basement is an immense receptacle for numberless barrels and cases of 
oil— linseed ^boiled and raw;, lard, sperm, neatsfoot, coal (which is a large 
item in the stock), and China oil— the latter is used for illuminating pur- 
poses, and, it is said, as an article of food by the natives of that country. 
Here are stored, also, large quantities of Tilden's varnishes, alcohol in 
cases, and Jules' white lead, in tierces and kegs containing twenty-five 
and fifty pounds. The basement is provided with tanks for boiled oils, 
There are also vessels for pressing sperm oil, and preparing it in suitable 
quantities for sale. 

Zinc, Faints, Leads. 

" Among the commodities Sullivan, Kelly & Co. import.in large quautities may be men- 
tioned "Vielle Montagne Company's French zinc, which for a time was employed as a 
substitute for English and American white leads. It is imported from Liege and Paris, 



and, when ground in oil, is reported to be the most economical white paint manufac- 
tured, either for inside finishing or for ordinary house painting. In addition to French 
zinc, they have in their establishment ample supplies of Atlantic, Jewett & Son's, and 
" Z in diamond" brand of English white lead, winch are considered the best that come 
to this market. In reference to paints in general, it has to be stated that parties most 
particular in having their work done well bestow their patronage upon this house. The 
best description of paint is known by its evenness of surface, solidity of body, pureness 
of color, and, generally, by good covering qualities. The paints used in the buildings of 
the Pacific Insurance Company and Bank of California were obtained from this esiab- 
lishment. 

Brushes and Artists' Materials. 

in supply of the very numerous descriptions of articles, 
of New York, manufacture, principally), and artists' 
materials. To enumerate them Would occupy entirely too much space, allusion can only 
be made to the several classes. 

" The locality of the establishment is very favorable, being at the same time central 
and in proximity to the water front, and the great thoroughfares where trade has made 
its firmest and most appropriate footing." ^ 



Corner Front and Pine Streets, San Francisco. 



Blank Book Manufacturing, 

In all its Branches, at Eastern Rates, 

BY 

Barillas A Kimball* 

50$ ®&®y Brmmmw* Maw FMwms®®* 



l^p 3 Orders from the Country, by Mail or Express, promptly attended to. 

BLAKE, ROBBINS & CO. 

Importers and Jobbers of 

Paper Bags, Card Stock, Straw Paper, Straw and Binders' Boards, 

Black and Colored Inks, Bronzes, &c. 

(516 -Sacramento anil 519 ©onrmercial -Sis., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Francis Blake, ~| 

James Moffitt, > San Francisco. 

Chas. f. robbins, J New York Office, 18 & 20 Vesey Street. 

James TV. Towke, New York. 



Marcus C. Hawley & Co. 



IMPORTERS OF 



Agricultural Implements. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

BUCKEYE MOWER & REAPER, 
BURDICK HAY CUTTER, 

And EUREKA GANG PLOW, 



Nos. 108 and 110 Front Street, 


wnii a& oo, 


IMPORTERS OF 
PROPRIETORS OF THE 



HAVANA CIGAR MANUFACTORY, 
!os. 221,223 \$n 225 Fhoht Stvb'Ti 

Southwest corner Front and Sacramento Streets, 



} r 



IS 
108 Battery Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENTS ON THE PACIFIC COAST FOR 

Dupont's Celebrated Blasting, Cannon, 

Musket and Sporting 

WINCHESTER'S (Improved Henry) Repeating Rifles, 
Carbines, Rifled Muskets, and Fixed Ammunition, \ 
capable of discharging 18 shots in nine seconds. 

LAKE SUPERIOR AND PACIFIC FUSE COM- 
PANY'S Never Failing Safety Fuse. 

_^______ I 

Sorbier's Restaurant, 

510 COMMERCIAL ST., IMMEDIATELY BELOW MONTGOMERY, | 
J. E. 80RBIER, PROPRIETOR. 

Charter Oak Life Insurance Co. 

Of Hartford, Conn. Organized A. D. 1850. Assets over $7,750,000. 

CHARLES H. DENISON, General Agent for State of Califorkia, 
Office in San Francisco, 331 Montgomery Street 

Chas. D. Carter, 

REAL ESTATE AGENT, Office of " Chas. D. Carter's Real Estate Cir- 
cular," No. 410 California Street, Two Doors West of the Bank of 
California, San Francisco. 

Houses and Lots for Sale in all parts of the City. Country Property 
Bought and Sold. 




Prindle's Non-Explosive 

AND 

Farmer's Boiler 

OR 

General Cooking, Heating, 
and Steaming Apparatus. 






Locke & Montague, 

Importers of Stoves and Metals, 

Nos. 1 12 & 114 Battery Street, 



W; 



The Celebrated 



'IISM 



The Neatest, Cheapest 

and Best Cooking 
Stove in the Market.